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人类重大发明列表 发表评论(0) 编辑词条

目录

人类重要发明列表编辑本段回目录

玻璃——纪元前3000多年 美索不达米亚

(图)发明照亮人类历史!发明照亮人类历史!


里程表——纪元前15年左右 罗马
地理经度纬度——1-2世纪 罗马
眼镜——约1284年 欧洲
机械钟——14世纪 欧洲
望远镜——1570-1619年 荷兰
闹钟——15世纪 德国
湿度计——15世纪 意大利 (利奥纳多.达.芬奇)
温度计——17世纪 意大利
显微镜——1668年之前 荷兰
火柴——1680年 爱尔兰
自来水笔——1702年 法国
缝纫机——1755年 德国
现代水泥——1756年 英国
航海导航六分仪——1757年 英国
蒸汽机——1769年 英国
蒸汽汽车——1769年 法国
打火机——1816年 德国
自行车——1817年 德国
电动汽车——1832-39年 英国
汽油/内燃机汽车——1885-86年 德国
天花疫苗——1796年 英国r
螺丝/螺丝刀——1770年 英国 (发明生产螺丝的车床)
热气球——1783年 法国
动力织布机——1785年 英国
电池——1800年 意大利
冰箱——1805年 美国
复写纸——1806年 意大利
雨衣——1823年 英国
柏油路(沥青路)——1824年 法国
铁路蒸汽机车——1825年 英国
相片/照相——1827年 法国
电报——1830 美国
发电机——1832年 英国/美国
剪草机——1830年 英国
太阳能电池——1839年 法国
订书机——1841年 美国
传真机——1843年 英国
液压起重机——1845年 英国
滑冰刀——1848年 美国
气压计 / 水压计 —— 1849年 法国
拉链——1851年 美国
医用注射器——1853年 英国
电梯——1853年 美国
 液压千斤顶——1855年 美国
日光灯——1857-? 法国
塑料——1862年 英国
病菌致病理论——1862年 法国
硝化甘油炸药与引爆雷管——1863年 瑞典
潜水艇——1864年 美国
化学元素周期表——1864年 俄国
摩托车——1867年 美国
消毒式外科手术——1869年 英国
弹簧钢卷尺——1868年 美国
(蒸汽)拖拉机——1868年 欧洲
打字机——1873年 美国
电话——1876年 美国
麦克风——1876年 美国
留声机——1877年 美国
扬声器——1877年 德国
电灯——1879年 美国
投币自动售货机——19世纪80年代 英国
金属探测仪——1881年 美国
血压计——1881年 奥地利
电熨斗——1882年美国
计算器——1885年 美国
电弧焊——1885年 俄国
细菌染色分类法——1884年 丹麦/德国
狂犬病疫苗——1885年 法国
洗碗碟机——1886年 美国
保险柜——1886年 美国
玻璃隐形眼镜——1887年 德国
旋转门——1888年 美国
收音机无线电广播)——19世纪90年代 欧洲
保温瓶——1892年 英国
电影——1892年 美国
气动锤——1894年美国
柴油内燃机——1894年 法国
X光 (X射线)——1895年 德国
交流电——1895年 美国
街道清扫车——1896年 美国
阴极射线管——1897年 德国
手电筒——1898年 美国
镍镉电池——1899年 瑞典
手表——19世纪末 法国
电视技术——探索始于1884年德国,20世纪进一步在英国美国发展完善
电热毯——20世纪初 欧洲
飞机——1903年 美国
彩色电视机——*年美国开始研制,1954年投入市场。
维生素——1905年 英国
相对论——1905年 德国
水底声纳——1906年 美国
空调机——1906年 美国
电动洗衣机——1907 美国
气垫船——1908年 美国
超导体——1911年 荷兰
道路交通信号——1912年 美国
直升飞机——1924年 法国
电子显微镜——1931年 德国
厨房抽油烟机——1933年 美国
雷达——1935年 英国
喷气发动机——1936年 德国
电脑/计算机——1945年 美国
复印机——1950年 美国
条形码——1952年 美国
尼龙与氯丁(二烯)橡胶——1938 美国
圆珠笔——1938年 匈牙利
步话机——1938年 加拿大
回旋加速器——1939(?)美国
青霉素——1939年 英国
微波炉——1946年 美国
小儿麻痹症疫苗——1947年 美国
全息摄影术——1947年 英国
塑料隐形眼镜——1948年 美国
照相排版术——1949年 法国
电脑游戏——1952年英国(第一个图形电脑游戏在EDSAC 真空管计算机上展示)
四环素——1955年 美国
晶体管——1956年 美国
人造卫星——1957年 前苏联
光学纤维——1958年 美国
集成电路——1959年 美国
机器人——1959年 美国
激光——1960年 美国
全球定位系统(理论)—— 1960年 美国
磁带——1962年 荷兰
动物克隆成功——1962年 英国
液晶显示器——1963-1970 美国
投影仪——1965年 美国
CD——1965年 美国
现代取款机——1966年 英国
互联网——始于1969年 美国
航天机——1981年 美国
锂电池——1990年 日本
DVD——1996年 日本生产出第一台DVD光驱(专利技术为飞利浦、索尼、松下和东芝共有)
数码摄像/录像技术——1969年 美国
激光打印机——1971年 美国
手机移动电话)——1973年 美国
基因工程——1973年 美国
MP3音频压缩技术——1987 德国
激光摘除白内障——1988年 美国

人类发明大列表(英文)编辑本段回目录

Paleolithic era
Main article: Paleolithic
Indeterminate: Music, Language
2.4 Ma BP: Olduwan - struck stone tools, in East Africa
1.65 Ma: Acheulean - struck and reworked stone tools, in Kenya
1.4 Ma: Knife in Ethiopia
1 Ma: Controlled fire and sterilization of food and water (cooking) in East Africa
500 ka: Shelter construction [1]
100-500 ka: Clothing
400 ka: Pigments in Zambia [2]
400 ka: Spears in Germany [3]
200 ka: Burial in Africa
140 ka: Bone tools in Africa (see Blombos Cave)
140 ka: Shellfishing in Africa (see Blombos Cave)
100 ka: Lithic blades in Africa and the ancient Near East
60 ka: Ships probably used by settlers of New Guinea
50 ka: Flute in Slovenia
50 ka: Bow in Tunisia [4] [5]
43 ka: Mining in Swaziland and Hungary
37 ka: Tally sticks in Swaziland [6]
30 ka: Sewing needles
26 ka: Ceramics in Moravia
25 ka: Atlatl in Northwest Africa [7]
17 ka: twisted Rope (probably much earlier)
15 ka: Boomerang in Australia[8]
12 ka: Basket weaving

Antiquity

10th millennium BC
Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent
Alcoholic beverages in the Fertile Crescent
Adobe in the ancient Near East
9500 BC: Granary in the Jordan Valley

9th millennium BC
8700 BC: Metalworking (copper pendant) in Mesopotamia (Iraq)

8th millennium BC
Animal husbandry in the ancient Near East

7th millennium BC
7000 BC: Dental drill in Mehrgarh, Pakistan[9]
6200 BC: Map in Çatalhöyük
Cloth woven from flax fiber

6th millennium BC
Irrigation in the Fertile Crescent
Beer in Sumer, Mesopotamia (Iraq)[8]
City in Mesopotamia (Iraq)
Plough in Mesopotamia (Iraq)
History of technology
By period and location:
Neolithic Revolution
Egyptian technology
Indian technology
Chinese technology
Greek technology
Roman technology
Muslim technology
Muslim Agricultural Revolution
Medieval technology
Renaissance technology
British Agricultural Revolution
Industrial Revolution
By type of technology:

History of biotechnology
History of communication
History of computer hardware
History of electrical engineering
History of materials science
History of measurement
History of medicine
History of nuclear technology
History of transport
Technology timelines:

Timeline of historic inventions
Complete list
 
edit

5th millennium BC
Beer and bread in Egypt
Wheel and axle combination in Mesopotamia
Ice skate in Scandinavia[10]

4th millennium BC
4000 BC: Canal in Mesopotamia
4000 BC: Stone paved street Ur Iraq
3807-3806 BC: Timber-engineered roadway in England
3630 BC: Silk in China
3500 BC: Plywood in Egypt
3500 BC: Writing in Sumer
3500 BC: Carts in Sumer
3100 BC: Drainage in the Indus Valley Civilization (India/Pakistan)
3000 BC: Sailing
3000 BC: Rice in India[11]
3000 BC: Reservoir in the Indus Valley Civilization[12]
Bronze: Susa (Iran)
Cement in Egypt
River boats in Egypt
Noodle in China
Comb in Persia (these combs were very refined, so combs themselves are probably older)

3rd millennium BC
2800 BC: Button in the Indus Valley Civilization (India)
2800 BC: Soap in Mesopotamia
2700 BC: Plumbing in the Indus Valley Civilization[13]
2630-2611 BC: Step pyramid: Imhotep in Egypt
2600s BC: Papyrus: Imhotep in Egypt
2600s BC: Suture: Imhotep in Egypt
2600s BC: Pharmaceutical cream: Imhotep in Egypt
2600 BC: e Chariot in Mesopotamia
2500 BC: Arch in Mohenjo-daro (Indus Valley Civilization) (India)[14]
2400 BC: Shipyard in Lothal (Indus Valley Civilization) (India)
2400 BC: Dock in Lothal (Indus Valley Civilization)[15]
2000 BC: Currency
Aqueduct in ancient Egypt and Indus Valley Civilization (India)
Dagger in Near East
Sickle-sword in Sumer
Alphabet in Phoenicia
Candles in Egypt
Ink in China
Sledges in Scandinavia
Ski in Scandinavia[8]

2nd millennium BC
Iron in Anatolia, Caucasus and India
Perfume: Tapputi in Mesopotamia
Bronze Age sword in Mesopotamia
Glass in Egypt[16]
Rubber in Mesoamerica
Spoked-wheel chariot: Indo-Iranians
Water clock in Egypt
Iron Age sword
Bells in China
Fork in China[17]
Umbrella in Mesopotamia
Calibration in the Indus Valley Civilization[18]
Metrology in the Indus Valley Civilization[18]
1300–1000 BC: Zinc in India[19]
1000s BC: Coins in China
1000 BC: Lens in Assyria
1000 BC: Central heating: Ondol in Korea[20]
1000 BC: Underfloor heating: Ondol in Korea[20]

1st millennium BC
Cautery in Ancient Rome[21]
Speculum in Ancient Rome[21]
Cross-bladed scissors in Ancient Rome[22][21]
Surgical needle in Ancient Rome[21]
Cataract surgery in Ancient Rome[23]
750 BC: Celestial spheres in ancient Greece[24]
700s BC: Button in Ancient Greece, Etruscan civilization[8]
700 BC: Chain pump in Babylonia
600s BC: Latin alphabet in Ancient Rome
600 BC: Chopsticks in China
592 BC: Anchor in ancient Greece[25]
500s BC: Sugar in India
500s BC: Dental bridge in Etruria
500s BC: Kite: Lu Ban in China
500s BC: Maps in ancient Greece[26]
500s BC: Plastic surgery: Sushruta in India
500s BC: Cosmetic surgery: Sushruta in India
500 BC: Iron plough in China
499-477 BC: Horse collar in China[27]
475 BC: Scythed Chariot: Ajatashatru in India
400s BC: Linguistics: Pāṇini in India[28]
400s BC: Trebuchet in China
400s BC: Traction trebuchet in China
400s BC: Football in China
400s BC: Catapult in ancient Greece[29]
400s BC: Cast iron in China
400s BC: Crossbow in China
350 BC: Water wheel in India[30]
350 BC: Watermill in India[30]
c. 300: Wootz steel in India
300s BC: Roman aqueduct in ancient Rome[31]
300s BC: Compass in China
300s BC: Star catalogues: Gan De and Shi Shen
300s BC: Encyclopedia: Speusippus in ancient Greece[8]
300s BC: Screw: Archytas
300s BC: India ink in India
200s BC: Diamond (gemstone) in India[32]
300-100 BC: Blast furnace in China
300-100 BC: Cupola furnace in China
300-100 BC: Pig iron in China
285 BC: Suspension bridge in China
250 BC: Lever in ancient Greece
210 BC: Chromium use in China
200s BC: Compound pulley: Archimedes
200s BC: Odometer: Archimedes?
200s BC: Archimedes' screw : Archimedes
200s BC: Cashmere wool in India[33]
200s BC: Contour canal: Shi Lu in China
200s BC: Lock gate in China
200s BC: Stupa in India[34]
200s BC: Pagoda in India[34]
202-1 BC: Bellows in China
200 BC: Horseshoe in ancient Rome
150s BC: Clockwork (Antikythera mechanism)
150s BC: Astrolabe: Hipparchus
100s BC: Big-toe stirrup in India[35]
100 BC: Glassblowing in ancient Rome[36]
100s BC: Parchment in Pergamon
500 BC: Heavy plough in China
100s BC: Wheelbarrow in China[37]
100 BC: Trip hammer in China
52 BC: Armillary sphere: Geng Shouchang in China
40 BC: Rolling-element bearing in Roman ship
21 BC: Collapsable umbrella: Wang Mang[38]
Catapult in ancient Near East
South Pointing Chariot in China
Differential gear in China and Greek island of Antikythera
Flash lock in China
Bookbinding in India
Blowgun in India[39]
Indigo dye in India[40]
Iron pellet in India[39]
Jute in Bengal[41]
Neem toothbrush in India

1st millennium AD

1st-5th centuries
1-100 AD: Junk ship in China
1-100 AD: Rudder in China[42]
38 AD: Hydraulic-powered bellows: Du Shi
50 AD: Mouldboard plough in China and Gaul
77 AD: Encyclopedia (comprehensive work): Pliny the Elder[8]
78-139: Hydraulic-powered armillary sphere: Zhang Heng
78-139: Seismometer: Zhang Heng
100s: Aeolipile: Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt
100s: Carding in India[43]
105: Paper: Cai Lun in China[44]
132: Rudimentary Seismometer: Zhang Heng in China
180: Rotary fan: Ding Huan in China
180: Winnowing fan: Ding Huan in China
200s: Kongming lantern (Hot air balloon) in China
200s: Horseshoes in Germany
200-400: Stepwell in India[45]
300s: Toothpaste in Roman Egypt
400s: Horse collar in China
400s: Cotton gin in India[46]
Fore-and-aft rig in India[47]
Kamal in India[48]
Prayer wheel: Tibet[49]
Three-masted merchant vessel in China[50]
Woodblock printing in China

6th-8th centuries
500s: Chess in India[51]
500s: Ludo in India[52]
559: Manned kite: Yuan Huangtou
589: Toilet paper: Yan Zhitui in China
610-632: Miswak toothbrush: Muhammad in Arabia
605: Open-spandrel segmental arch bridge: Li Chun in China
618-700: Porcelain in China
618-907: Water-powered rotary fan in China
634-644: Windmill: Umar[53]
673: Greek fire: Kallinikos of Heliopolis
673: Flamethrower in Syria
700: Quill pen
700-900: Charitable trust in the Arab Empire[54][55]
700s: Brass astrolabe: Muhammad al-Fazari[56]
700s: Destructive distillation: Arabic chemists[57]
700s: Inoculation: Madhav in India[58]
700s: Glass factory in Syria[59]
700s: Pottery factory in Syria[59]
721-800: Coloured glass: Geber[60]
721-815: Alembic: Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan)[61]
721-815: Still: Geber[61]
721-815: Retort: Geber[62]
721-815: Filtration: Geber[63]
721-815: Crystallization: Geber[64]
721-815: Pure distillation: Geber[63]
721-815: Distilled alcohol: Geber[61]
721-815: Distilled wine: Geber[61]
721-815: Distilled beverage: Geber[61]
721-815: Mineral acid: Geber[65]
721-815: Nitric acid: Geber[65]
721-815: Hydrochloric acid: Geber[65]
721-815: Sulfuric acid: Geber[65][66]
721-815: Uric acid: Geber[67]
721-815: Acetic acid: Geber[64][68]
721-815: Citric acid: Geber[64]
721-815: Tartaric acid: Geber[64]
721-815: Aqua regia: Geber[65]
721-815: Cheese glue: Geber[69]
721-815: Plated mail: Geber[69]
721-815: Lustreware: Geber[70]
721-815: Tin-glazing: Geber[71]
721-815: Cucurbit: Geber[72]
721-815: Evacuation tube: Geber[72]
721-815: Aludel: Geber[72]
721-815: Artificial pearl[69]
721-815: Purified pearl[69]
721-815: Dyed pearl[69]
721-815: Dyed gemstone [69]
721-815: Artificial gemstone[69]
721-925: Rose water: Geber, Al-Kindi (Alkindus), Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes)[72]
721-925: Heated bath: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[72]
721-925: Sand bath: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[72]
721-925: Funnel: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[72]
721-925: Sieve: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[72]
721-925: Filter: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[72]
725: Clockwork escapement mechanism: Yi Xing of China
754: Pharmacy in Baghdad[73]
754: Drugstore in Baghdad[73]
758-764: Tar pavement in Baghdad[57]
763-800: Public hospital: Harun al-Rashid[74]
763-800: Psychiatric hospital in Baghdad[75]
794: Paper mill in Baghdad[76]
Amalgamation: Arabic chemists[72]
Ceration: Arabic chemists[72]
Dry distillation: Arabic chemists
Solution: Arabic chemists[72]
Sublimation: Arabic chemists[63][72]
Water purification: Arabic chemists[77]
Purified water: Arabic chemists[77]
Fusible alloy: Arabic chemists[72]
Petrol: Arabic chemists[78]
Apothecary: Arabic physicians[79]
Lateen in India[47]

9th-10th centuries
700-1000: Spinning wheel in India[80]
800-850: Quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi)[81]
800-850: Mural instrument: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[81]
800-850: Sine quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[81]
800-850: Horary quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[81]
800-850: Alhidade: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[82]
800-857: Under-arm deodorant: Ziryab[83]
800-857: Beauty parlour: Ziryab[84]
800-857: Bangs: Ziryab[84]
800-857: Chemical depilatory: Ziryab[84]
800-873: Valve: Banū Mūsā in Iraq[85]
800-873: Float valve: Banū Mūsā[85]
800-873: Feedback controller: Banū Mūsā[85]
800-873: Float chamber: Banū Mūsā[86]
800-873: Automatic control: Banū Mūsā[86]
800-873: Automatic flute player: Banū Mūsā[87]
800-873: Programmable machine: Banū Mūsā[87]
800-873: Trick drinking vessels: Banū Mūsā[88]
800-873: Gas mask: Banū Mūsā[88]
800-873: Grab: Banū Mūsā[88]
800-873: Clamshell grab: Banū Mūsā[88]
800-873: Fail-safe system: Banū Mūsā[88]
800-873: Mechanical musical instrument: Banū Mūsā[89]
800-873: Hydropowered organ: Banū Mūsā[89]
800-873: Hurricane lamp: Banū Mūsā[88]
800-873: Self-feeding oil lamp: Banū Mūsā[88]
800-873: Self-trimming oil lamp: Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir[88]
800-1000: Wind powered gristmills in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran[90]
800-1000: Sugar refinery in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran[90]
800-1000: Metal block printing in Egypt[91]
c. 800-1000: Switch: Arabic engineers[92]
800s: Stonepaste ceramics in Iraq[93]
800s: Black powder in China
800s: Gunpowder in China
800s: Water turbine in the Arab Empire[88]
800s: Universal sundial in Baghdad[94]
800s: Universal horary dial in Baghdad[95][96]
800s: Vertical-axle windmill in Afghanistan[53]
800s: Naphtha in Azerbaijan[57]
800s: Oil well in Azerbaijan[57]
801-873: Pure alcohol: Al-Kindi (Alkindus)[97]
801-1000: Municipal solid waste handling: Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Masihi[98]
810-887: Glass from stones: Abbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus[99]
810-887: Eye glasses: Abbas Ibn Firnas[57]
810-887: Clear colourless high-purity glass: Abbas Ibn Firnas[99][100]
810-887: Metronome: Abbas Ibn Firnas[101]
810-887: Artificial weather simulation: Abbas Ibn Firnas[101]
813-833: Medical school: Al-Ma'mun[74]
827: Mechanical singing bird automaton: Al-Ma'mun[102]
836-1000: Erectile dysfunction treatment: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi, Thabit bin Qurra (Thebit), Ibn Al-Jazzar[103]
853-929: Observation tube: Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius)[104]
852: Parachute: Abbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus[67]
859: University: Princess Fatima al-Fihri[105][106]
875: Hang glider: Abbas Ibn Firnas[101][107]
875: Artificial wing: Abbas Ibn Firnas[101][107]
875: Flight control frame: Abbas Ibn Firnas[101][107]
c. 865-900: Kerosene: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) in Iraq[57][108]
865-925: Hard soap: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[109]
865-925: Chemotherapy: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[110]
865-925: Antiseptic: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[57]
900s: Banknote in China
900s: Fire lance in China
900s: Gun in China
900s: Milling factory in Baghdad[111]
900s: Cartographic grid in Baghdad[112]
900s: Graph paper in the Arab Empire[113][114][115]
900s: Horizontal-axle windmill in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran[53]
903-986: Timekeeping astrolabe: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi)[116]
904: Fire Arrow in China
919: Double-piston flamethrower in China
984: Pound lock: Qiao Weiyo
953: Fountain pen: Al-Muizz Lideenillah of Egypt[117][118][67]
960-1000: Restaurant in the Arab Empire[119]
994: Astronomical sextant: Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in Persia[120]
996: Geared mechanical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[121]
Almucantar quadrant: Arabic astronomers[122]
Navigational astrolabe: Arabic astronomers[123]
Vertical sundial: Arabic astronomers[124]
Polar sundial: Arabic astronomers[124]
Coffee: Khalid in Ethiopia
Shaving soap: Arabic chemists
Plumb line: Arabic engineers[125]
Reed level: Arabic engineers[125]
Triangulation: Arabic engineers[125]
Geared gristmill: Arabic engineers[126]
Shatranj in Persia
Paned window in the Arab Empire[127]
Street lamp in the Arab Empire[127]
Sherbet in the Arab Empire[128]
Soft drink in the Arab Empire[129][128]
Syrup in the Arab Empire[128]
Mercury escapement mechanism in the Middle East
Bridge dam in Iran[130]
Milling dam in Iran[130][131]
Diversion dam in Iraq[130]
Public library in the Arab Empire[132]
Lending library in the Arab Empire[132]
Library catalog in the Arab Empire[133]
Firecracker in China
Snakes and ladders in India

2nd millennium

11th century
c. 1000: Pendulum: Ibn Yunus in Egypt[134]
c. 1000: Injection syringe: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili of Iraq[57][135][136]
c. 1000: Hypodermic needle: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili[135][136]
c. 1000: Cataract extraction: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili[135][136]
c. 1000: Suction: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili[135][136]
1000: Ligature: Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) in Al-Andalus[137]
1000: Adhesive plaster: Abu al-Qasim[138]
1000: Curette: Abu al-Qasim[139]
1000: Retractor: Abu al-Qasim[139]
1000: Lithotomy scalpel: Abu al-Qasim[140]
1000: Surgical catgut: Abu al-Qasim
1000: Surgical hook: Abu al-Qasim[139]
1000: Surgical rod: Abu al-Qasim[139]
1000: Surgical spoon: Abu al-Qasim[139]
1000: Inhalational anaesthetic: Abu al-Qasim[57][141]
1000: Anaesthetic sponge: Abu al-Qasim[57][141]
1000: Oral anaesthesia: Abu al-Qasim[57][141]
1000: Cotton dressing: Abu al-Qasim[142]
c. 1000-1009: Monumental astrolabe: Ibn Yunus[143]
c. 1000-1020: Heliocentric astrolabe: Al-Sijzi[144]
c. 1000-1037: Thermometer: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) in Persia[145]
c. 1000-1037: Essential oil: Avicenna[146]
c. 1000-1048: Orthographical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in Persia[147]
c. 1000-1048: Planisphere: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[148][147]
c. 1000-1048: Star chart: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[148]
c. 1000-1048: Laboratory flask: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[149]
c. 1000-1048: Pycnometer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[149]
c. 1000-1048: Conical measure: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[150]
c. 1000-1048: Geared mechanical lunisolar calendar analog computer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[151]
c. 1000-1048: Fixed-wired knowledge processing machine: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[152]
1020: Mechanical astrolabe: Ibn Samh in Al-Andalus[153]
1021: Magnifying glass: Ibn al-Haytham[154]
1021: Curved mirror: Ibn al-Haytham[155]]][156]
1021: Pinhole camera: Ibn al-Haytham[157]
1021: Camera obscura: Ibn al-Haytham[157]
1025: Cancer therapy: Avicenna[142][158]
1025: Hirudotherapy: Avicenna[159]
1025: Medicinal leech: Avicenna[159]
1025: Calcium channel blocker: Avicenna[160]
1025: Pharmacopoeia: Avicenna[161][162]
1028-1087: Equatorium: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in Al-Andalus[163]
1028-1087: Universal astrolabe: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī
1031-1095: Raised-relief map: Shen Kuo[164][165]
1038-1075: Flywheel: Ibn Bassal in Al-Andalus[166]
1041: Movable type printing press: Bi Sheng in China
1044: Hand grenade: Zhen Tian Lei in China
1087: Almanac: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī[167]
1088: Mechanical clock: Su Song
1088: Clock tower: Su Song
1088: Magnetic compass: Shen Kuo in China
1090: Belt drive: Qin Guan in in China
1090: Chain drive in China
1092: Astronomical clock: Su Song
1094: Printed star chart: Su Song
Coke fuel in China
Complex gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus[86]
Epicyclic gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus[86]
Segmental gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus[86]
Geared mechanical clock: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus[86]
Weight-driven mechanical clock: Arabic engineers[86]
Celestial globe: Arabic astronomers
Clear glass mirror in Al-Andalus[57]
Cobwork in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus[168]

12th century
c. 1100: Framed bead abacus in China
1100-1150: Torquetum: Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber)[169]
1100-1161: Tracheotomy: Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in Al-Andalus[170]
1119: Watertight hull compartment: Zhu Yu in China
1121: Steelyard: Al-Khazini in Persia[149]
1121: Hydrostatic balance: Al-Khazini[149]
1126: Fire arrow: Li Gang in China
1126: Rocket: Li Gang in China
1128: Cannon in China[171]
1135-1200: Linear astrolabe: Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī in Persia[172]
1150: Homing pigeons in Iraq and Syria[173]
1154: Striking clock: Al-Kaysarani in Syria[174]
1187: Counterweight trebuchet: Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi[175][176]
1187: Mangonel: Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi[177]
1190: Mariner's compass in Italy[178]
Astrolabic quadrant in Egypt[179]
Ventilator in Egypt[180]
Bridge mill in Al-Andalus[131]
Hydropowered forge in Al-Andalus[90]
Finery forge in Al-Andalus[90]
Central heating through underfloor pipes in Syria[181]
Fireworks in China
Sunglasses in China


13th century
c. 1200: Glass mirror in Europe[8][182]
c. 1200: Combination lock: Al-Jazari in Iraq (Mesopotamia)[67]
1206: Bolted joint lock[88]
1206: Clock automaton: Al-Jazari
1206: Flow control regulator: Al-Jazari
1206: Closed-loop system: Al-Jazari
1206: Elephant clock: Al-Jazari
1206: Hand washing device: Al-Jazari
1206: Kitchen appliance: Al-Jazari
1206: Camshaft: Al-Jazari[183]
1206: Connecting rod: Al-Jazari[184]
1206: Segmental gear: Al-Jazari[185]
1206: Suction pipe: Al-Jazari
1206: Suction piston pump: Al-Jazari[186]
1206: Reciprocating piston motion: Al-Jazari[186]
1206: Double-acting engine: Al-Jazari[186]
1206: Humanoid robot: Al-Jazari[187]
1206: Programmable robot: Al-Jazari[187]
1206: Programmable analog computer: Al-Jazari[188]
1206: Automatic gate: Al-Jazari[189]
1206: Pointer: Al-Jazari[189][88]
1206: Hydropowered water supply system: Al-Jazari[189]
1206: Geared water supply system: Al-Jazari[189]
1206: Laminate: Al-Jazari[88]
1206: Mechanical template: Al-Jazari[88]
1206: Paper model: Al-Jazari[88]
1206: Calibration: Al-Jazari[88]
1206: Sand casting: Al-Jazari[88]
1206: Emery powder: Al-Jazari[88]
1206: Crankshaft-driven chain pump: Al-Jazari[190]
1206: Hydropowered saqiya chain pump: Al-Jazari[191]
1206: Intermittent working: Al-Jazari[190]
1206: Hour hand: Al-Jazari[192][193]
1232: Rocket launcher in China
1235: Geared astrolabe with analog computer calendar: Abi Bakr of Isfahan[194]
1259: Research institute: Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī[195]
1259: Observatory institution: Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī[195]
1260: Hand cannon in Egypt[196][65]
1260: Explosive gunpowder in Egypt[196][65]
1260: Explosive cannon in Egypt[196][65]
1260: Handgun in Egypt[196][65]
1260: Portable firearm in Egypt[196][65]
1260: Cartridge in Egypt[196]
1260: Dissolve talc in Egypt[196]
1260: Fire protection in Egypt[196]
1260: Fireproof clothing in Egypt[196]
1270: Pure saltpetre: Hasan al-Rammah of Syria[196][65]
1274: Siege cannon: Abu Yaqub Yusuf[196]
1275: Torpedo: Hasan al-Rammah of Syria
1275: Restaurant menu in China
1277: Land mine: Lou Qianxia in China
c. 1296: Astronomical compass: Yemeni sultan al-Ashraf[197]
1297-1298: Wooden movable type printing: Wang Zhen of China
Caravel in Al-Andalus[50]
Crankshaft-driven screw: Arabic engineers[198]
Crankshaft-driven screwpump: Arabic engineers[198]
Sandpaper in China
Solid-fuel rocket in China
Condom in Italy
Buttonhole in Germany[8]

14th century
1304-1375: Astrolabic clock: Ibn al-Shatir[199]
1304-1375: Compendium instrument: Ibn al-Shatir[124]
1304-1375: Compass dial: Ibn al-Shatir[200]
1350: Rope bridge in Peru
1355: Bombard: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1355: Booster: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1355: Matchlock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1355: Multistage rocket: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1355: Naval mine: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1355: Round shot: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1355: Shell: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1355: Wheellock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
1371: Polar-axis sundial: Ibn al-Shatir[201]
32-point compass rose in the Arab world[202]
Musket in China
Spherical astrolabe in the Middle East

15th century
1400-1429: Plate of conjunctions: Jamshīd al-Kāshī[203][204]
1400-1429: Planetary analog computer: Jamshīd al-Kāshī[204][205][206]
1405-1433: Troopship: Zheng He
1405-1433: Treasure ship: Zheng He
1441: Rain gauge: Jang Yeong-sil
1450s: Alphabetic movable type printing press: Johannes Gutenberg
1451: Concave lens for eyeglasses: Nicholas of Cusa
1453: Supergun in Ottoman Empire
1453: Great Turkish Bombard in Ottoman Empire
1490-1492: Terrestrial globe: Martin Behaim
1494: Double-entry bookkeeping system: Luca Pacioli
1498: Bristle toothbrush: Hongzhi Emperor
Iron-chain suspension bridge in China
Arquebus in Europe
Rifle in Europe

16th century
c. 1500: Ball bearing: Leonardo Da Vinci
c. 1500: Scissors: Leonardo Da Vinci
1524: Pocket watch: Peter Henlein[207]
1540: Ether: Valerius Cordus
1551: Steam turbine: Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt[208]
1556: Spring-powered clock: Peter Henlein and Taqi al-Din[207][209]
1559: Six-cylinder pump: Taqi al-Din[210]
1565: Pencil: Conrad Gesner[211][8]
1576: Ironclad warship: Oda Nobunaga[citation needed]
1577-1580: Mechanical seconds clock: Taqi al-Din[212][213]
1579: Prefabricated home: Akbar the Great[214]
1579: Movable structure: Akbar the Great[214]
1582: Autocannon: Fathullah Shirazi[215]
1582: Multi-barrel gun: Fathullah Shirazi[215]
1582: Corn-griding carriage: Fathullah Shirazi[216]
1589: Stocking frame: William Lee
1589-1590: Seamless celestial globe: Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman[217]
1589-1590: Seamless metal sphere: Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman[217]
c. 1590: Compound microscope: Zacharias Janssen, Hans Janssen, Hans Lippershey [218]
1593: Thermoscope: Galileo Galilei
Musket in Europe
Pencil in England
High-rise apartment buildings in Shibam[219]
Tower blocks in Shibam[220]
Vertical construction urban planning in Shibam[219]
1596: Water closet=toiletTemplate:John Harrington&Thomas Crapper

17th century
1609: Telescope: Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, Jacob Metius[221]
1610: Flintlock: Marin le Bourgeoys
1620: Slide rule: William Oughtred
1623: Automatic calculator: Wilhelm Schickard
1631: Vernier scale: Pierre Vernier
1642: Adding machine: Blaise Pascal
1643: Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli
1645: Vacuum pump: Otto von Guericke
1657: Pendulum clock: Christiaan Huygens
1672: Steam car: Ferdinand Verbiest[222][223]
1679: Pressure cooker: Denis Papin
1690: Polhem wheel: Christopher Polhem
1698: Steam engine: Thomas Savery
1700: Piano: Bartolomeo Cristofori

18th century
1701: Seed drill: Jethro Tull
1709: Iron smelting using coke: Abraham Darby I
1711: Tuning fork: John Shore
1712: Steam piston engine: Thomas Newcomen
1714: Mercury thermometer: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
1731: Octant: John Hadley, Thomas Godfrey
1733: Flying shuttle: John Kay
1737: Marine chronometer (H1): John Harrison
1742: Franklin stove: Benjamin Franklin
1750: Flatboat: Jacob Yoder
1752: Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin
1759: Shampoo: Sake Dean Mahomet of Bengal
1764: Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves/Thomas Highs
1767: Carbonated water: Joseph Priestley
1769: Water frame: Richard Arkwright/Thomas Highs
1769: Steam road vehicle: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot
1775: Submarine Turtle: David Bushnell
1776: Steamboat: Claude de Jouffroy
1776: Watt steam engine: James Watt
1777: Card teeth making machine: Oliver Evans
1777: Circular saw: Samuel Miller
1779: Spinning mule: Samuel Crompton
1780s: Iron-cased rocket: Tipu Sultan in India[224]
1780s: Metal-cylinder rocket artillery: Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in India[225]
1780s: Iron rocket artillery: Tipu Sultan of India[224]
1783: Hot air balloon: Montgolfier brothers
1784: Bifocals: Benjamin Franklin
1784: Oil lamp: Aimé Argand[8]
1784: Shrapnel shell: Henry Shrapnel
1785: Power loom: Edmund Cartwright
1785: Automatic flour mill: Oliver Evans
1786: Threshing machine: Andrew Meikle
1791: Artificial teeth: Nicholas Dubois De Chemant
1798: Vaccination: Edward Jenner
1798: Lithography: Alois Senefelder

19th century

1800s
1801: Jacquard loom: Joseph Marie Jacquard
1802: Screw propeller steamboat Phoenix: John Stevens
1802: Gas stove: Zachäus Andreas Winzler
1804: Locomotive: Richard Trevithick
1805: Submarine Nautilus: Robert Fulton
1807: Steamboat Clermont: Robert Fulton
1808: Band saw: William Newberry
1809: Arc lamp: Humphry Davy

1810s
1814: Steam locomotive (Blücher):
1816: Miner's safety lamp: Humphry Davy
1816: Stirling engine: Robert Stirling
1816: Stethoscope: Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec
1817: Draisine or velocipede (two-wheeled): Karl Drais
1817: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster
1818: Bicycle: Karl Drais[8]

1820s
1821: Electric motor: Michael Faraday
1823: Electromagnet: William Sturgeon
1823: Lighter: Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner
1824: Portland cement: William Aspdin
1826: Photography: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
1826: Internal combustion engine: Samuel Morey
1827: Friction match: John Walker
1829: Steam locomotive: George Stephenson[8]

1830s
1830: Thermostat: Andrew Ure[8]
1830: Stenotype on punched paper strip: Karl Drais
1831: Multiple coil magnet: Joseph Henry
1831: Magnetic acoustic telegraph: Joseph Henry (patented 1837)
1831: Reaper: Cyrus McCormick
1831: Electrical generator: Michael Faraday, Ányos Jedlik
1834: The Hansom cab is patented
1834: Louis Braille perfects his Braille system
1834: Refrigerator: Jacob Perkins
1834: Combine harvester: Hiram Moore
1835: Revolver: Samuel Colt
1835: Electromechanical Relay: Joseph Henry
1835: Incandescent light bulb: James Bowman Lindsay
1836: Sewing machine: Josef Madersberger
1837: US electric printing press patented by Thomas Davenport (February 25)
1837: Steel plow: John Deere
1837: Standard diving dress: Augustus Siebe
1837: Camera Zoom Lens: Jozef Maximilián Petzval
1837: Magnetic telegraph: Samuel Morse
1838: Electric telegraph: Charles Wheatstone (also Samuel Morse)
1838: closed diving suit with a helmet: Augustus Siebe
1839: Vulcanization of rubber: Charles Goodyear

1840s
1840: Artificial fertilizer: Justus von Liebig
1841: Saxophone:Adolphe Sax
1842: Superphosphate fertilizer: John Bennett Lawes
1842: Steam hammer: James Nasmyth
1842: Anaesthesia: Crawford Long
1843: Typewriter: Charles Thurber
1843: Fax machine: Alexander Bain[citation needed]
1843: Ice cream maker: Nancy Johnson
1843: Pile driver: James Nasmyth
1844: The safety match: Gustaf Erik Pasch
1845: Pneumatic tyre: Robert Thomson (inventor)
1846: Sewing machine: Elias Howe
1846: Rotary printing press: Richard M. Hoe
1849: Safety pin: Walter Hunt
1849: Francis turbine: James B. Francis
1849: Telephone: Antonio Meucci[citation needed]

1850s
1852: Airship: Henri Giffard
1852: Passenger elevator: Elisha Otis
1852: Gyroscope: Léon Foucault
1855: Bunsen burner: Peter Desaga
1855: Bessemer process: Henry Bessemer
1856: Celluloid: Alexander Parkes
1858: Undersea telegraph cable: Charles Wheatstone
1858: Mason jar: John L. Mason
1859: Oil drill: Edwin L. Drake
1859: Lead acid battery: Gaston Plante

1860s
1860: Light Bulb, Sir Joseph Swan
1860: Linoleum: Fredrick Walton
1860: Repeating rifle: Oliver F. Winchester, Christopher Spencer
1860: Self-propelled torpedo: Giovanni Luppis
1861: Ironclad (Battleship) USS Monitor: John Ericsson
1861: Siemens regenerative furnace: Carl Wilhelm Siemens
1862: Revolving machine gun: Richard J. Gatling
1862: Mechanical submarine: Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol
1862: Pasteurization: Louis Pasteur, Claude Bernard
1863: Player piano: Henri Fourneaux
1865: Roller Coaster: LaMarcus Adna Thompson
1865: Barbed wire: Louis Jannin
1866: Dynamite: Alfred Nobel
1868: Practical typewriter: Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soule, with assistance from James Densmore
1868: Air brake (rail): George Westinghouse
1868: Oleomargarine: Mege Mouries
1869: Vacuum cleaner: I.W. McGaffers

1870s
1870: Chewing gum: Thomas Adams[8]
1870: Magic Lantern projector: Henry R. Heyl
1870: Stock ticker: Thomas Alva Edison
1871: Cable car (railway): Andrew S. Hallidie
1873: Jeans: Levi Strauss[8]
1873: Railway knuckle coupler: Eli H. Janney
1873: Modern direct current electric motor: Zénobe Gramme
1874: Barbed wire: Joseph Glidden[8]
1874: Electric street car: Stephen Dudle Field
1874: DDT: Othmar Zeidler[8]
1875: Dynamo: William A. Anthony
1875: Magazine (firearm): Benjamin B. Hotchkiss
1876: Carpet sweeper: Melville Bissell
1876: Gasoline carburettor: Daimler
1876: Loudspeaker: Alexander Graham Bell
1877: Stapler: Henry R. Heyl
1877: Induction motor: Nikola Tesla
1877: Phonograph: Thomas Alva Edison
1877: Microphone: Emile Berliner
1878: Cathode ray tube: William Crookes
1878: Rebreather: Henry Fleuss[226]
1879: Pelton turbine: Lester Pelton
1879: Cash register: James Ritty

1880s
1880: Photophone: Alexander Graham Bell
1880: Roll film: George Eastman
1880: Safety razor: Kampfe Brothers
1880: Seismograph: John Milne
1881: Metal detector: Alexander Graham Bell
1882: Electric fan: Schuyler Skaats Wheeler
1882: Blowtorch: Carl Rickard Nyberg
1883: Two-phase (alternating current) induction motor: Nikola Tesla
1884: Linotype machine: Ottmar Mergenthaler
1884: Recording data on a machine readable medium, the Punched card: Herman Hollerith
1884: Trolley car, (electric): Frank Sprague, Charles Van Depoele
1885: Automobile patent granted (internal combustion engine powered): Karl Benz, first automobile put into production
1885: Machine gun: Hiram Stevens Maxim[227]
1885: Motorcycle: Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach
1885: Alternating current transformer: William Stanley
1885: Safety bicycle: John Kemp Starley
1886: Dishwasher: Josephine Cochrane
1886: Gasoline engine: Gottlieb Daimler
1886: Improved phonograph cylinder: Tainter & Bell
1887: Monotype machine: Tolbert Lanston
1887: Contact lens: Adolf E. Fick, Eugène Kalt and August Muller
1887: Gramophone record: Emile Berliner
1887: Ceiling fan: Philip Diehl
1888: Polyphase AC Electric power system: Nikola Tesla (30 related patents.)
1888: Kodak hand camera: George Eastman
1888: Ballpoint pen: John Loud
1888: Harvester-thresher: Matteson (?)
1888: Kinematograph: Augustin Le Prince
1889: Northrop Loom: Draper Corporation, James Henry Northrop

1890s
1891: Escalator: Jesse W. Reno[8]
1891: Thermal cracking process: Vladimir Shukhov
1891: Zipper: Whitcomb L. Judson
1891: Carborundum: Edward G. Acheson
1891: Modern adjustable spanner: Johan Petter Johansson
1892: Color photography: Frederic E. Ives
1892: Automatic telephone exchange (electromechanical): Almon Strowger - First in commercial service.
1893: Carburetor: Donát Bánki and János Csonka
1893: tuned Wireless communication: Nikola Tesla (The True Wireless)
1893: Radio: Nikola Tesla[citation needed]
1894: Radio transmission: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal[228]
1894: Milking machine: Gustaf de Laval
1895: Diesel engine: Rudolf Diesel
1895: Radiotelegraph: Guglielmo Marconi
1896: Vitascope: Thomas Armat
1897: Modern escalator: Jesse W. Reno
1898: Tapered roller bearing: Henry Timken
1898: Remote control: Nikola Tesla
1899: Iron-mercury coherer with telephone detector: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
1899: Automobile self starter: Clyde J. Coleman
1899: Magnetic tape recorder: Valdemar Poulsen
1899: Gas turbine: Charles Curtis[citation needed]

20th century

1900s
1900: Rigid dirigible airship: Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin
1900: Self-heating can
1900s: Microwave optics: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
1900s: Crescograph: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal[229]
1901: Mercury vapor lamp: Peter C. Hewitt
1901: Disposable razor blade: King C. Gillette
1901: Vacuum cleaner: Hubert Booth
1901: Gauge blocks: Carl Edvard Johansson
1902: Ostwald process: Wilhelm Ostwald
1902: Air Conditioner: Willis Carrier [8]
1902: Neon lamp: Georges Claude
1902: Radio telephone: Valdemar Poulsen, Reginald Fessenden
1902: Rayon cellulose ester: Arthur D. Little
1903: Electrocardiograph (EKG): Willem Einthoven
1903: Powered, controlled airplane: Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright
1904: Thermionic valve: John Ambrose Fleming
1904: Tractor: Benjamin Holt
1905: Radio tube diode: John Ambrose Fleming
1906: Sonar (first device): Lewis Nixon
1906: Triode amplifier: Lee DeForest
1907: Helicopter: Paul Cornu
1907: Radio tube triode: Lee DeForest
1907: Washing machine, (electric): Alva Fisher (Hurley Corporation)
1908: Cellophane: Jacques E. Brandenberger
1908: Geiger counter: Hans Geiger and Ernest Rutherford
1908: Gyrocompass: Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe
1908: Haber process: Fritz Haber
1909: Bakelite: Leo Baekeland
1909: Gun suppressor: Hiram Percy Maxim

1910s
1910: Braces on teeth: Joseph Clide
1910: Neon lighting: Georges Claude
1910: Thermojet engine: Henri Coandă
1911: Gyrocompass: Elmer A. Sperry
1911: Automobile self starter (perfected): Charles F. Kettering
1911: Hydroplane: Glenn Curtiss
1913: Bra: Mary Phelps Jacob
1913: Crossword: Arthur Wynne
1913: Parachute: Štefan Banič
1913: Radio receiver: Ernst Alexanderson, Reginald Fessenden
1913: Stainless steel: Harry Brearley
1913: X-Ray (coolidge tube): William D. Coolidge[230]
1914: Radio transmitter triode mod.: Ernst Alexanderson
1914: Liquid fuel rocket: Robert Goddard
1914: Tank, military: Sir William Ashbee Tritton and Major Walter Gordon Wilson[231]
1915: Tungsten Filament: Irving Langmuir
1915: Pyrex: Corning Inc.
1916: Browning Gun: John Browning
1916: Thompson submachine gun: John T. Thompson
1917: Sonar echolocation: Paul Langevin
1917: Cruise missile: Charles Kettering
1918: Interrupter gear: Anton Fokker
1918: Radio crystal oscillator: A.M. Nicolson
1919: Flip-flop circuit: William Eccles and F. W. Jordan
1919: Theremin: Leon Theremin

1920s
1920: Saha ionization equation: Meghnad Saha[232]
1921: Polygraph: John A. Larson
1922: Radar: Robert Watson-Watt, A. H. Taylor, L. C. Young, Gregory Breit, Merle Antony Tuve
1922: The absorption refrigerator: Baltzar von Platen
1923: Sound film: Lee DeForest
1923: Television Electronic: Philo Farnsworth
1923: Wind tunnel: Michael Max Munk
1923: Autogyro: Juan de la Cierva
1923: Xenon flash lamp: Harold Edgerton
1925: Ultra-centrifuge: Theodor Svedberg - used to determine molecular weights
1925: Television Nipkow System: C. Francis Jenkins
1926: Television Mechanical Scanner: John Logie Baird
1926: Aerosol spray: Rotheim
1927: Mechanical cotton picker: John Rust
1928: Sliced bread: Otto Frederick Rohwedder
1928: Electric dry shaver: Jacob Schick
1928: Antibiotics: Alexander Fleming (initial discovery of penicillin)
1928: Preselector gearbox: Walter Gordon Wilson
1928: Raman effect: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman[233]
1929: Electroencephelograph (EEG): Hans Berger
1929: Kinescope (CRT):Vladimir Zworykin
1920s: Band aid: Earle Dickson
1920s: Man-made Insulin: Paul Langerhans
1920s: Mechanical potato peeler: Herman Lay

1930s
1930: Neoprene: Wallace Carothers
1931: Radio telescope: Karl Jansky Grote Reber
1931: Iconoscope: Vladimir Zworykin
1934: Hammond Organ: Laurens Hammond
1935: Microwave RADAR: Robert Watson-Watt
1935: Nylon: Wallace Carothers
1935: Spectrophotometer: Arthur C. Hardy
1935: Casein fiber: Earl Whittier Stephen
1937: Turboprop engine: György Jendrassik
1937: Jet engine: Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain
1937: O-ring: Niels Christensen
1937: Nylon: Wallace H. Carothers[8]
1938: Ballpoint pen: Laszlo Biro
1938: xerography: Chester Carlson
1938: Fiberglass: Russell Games Slayter John H. Thomas
1938: LSD: Albert Hofmann
1939: Helicopter: Igor Sikorsky
1939: View-master: William Gruber
1939: Automated teller machine: Luther George Simjian

1940s
1941: Computer: Konrad Zuse[citation needed]
1941: Velcro: George de Mestral
1942: Bazooka Rocket Gun: Leslie A. Skinner C. N. Hickman
1942: Nuclear reactor: Enrico Fermi[8]
1942: Undersea oil pipeline: Hartley, Anglo-Iranian, Siemens in Operation Pluto
1943: Aqua-Lung: Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan
1944: Electron spectrometer: Deutsch Elliot Evans
1944: Fire balloon in Japan
1945: Slinky: Richard James and Betty James
1945: Microwave oven: Percy L. Spencer[8]
1945: Nuclear weapons (note: chain reaction theory was made in 1933)
1946: Microwave oven: Percy Spencer
1946: Mobile Telephone Service: AT&T and Southwestern Bell
1946: Bikini: Louis Réard[8]
1947: Transistor: William Shockley, Walter Brattain, John Bardeen
1947: Polaroid camera: Edwin Land
1948: Long Playing Record: Peter Carl Goldmark
1948: Holography: Dennis Gabor[8]
1949: Atomic clocks
1949: Radiocarbon dating: Willard Libby

1950s
1950: Credit card: Frank X. McNamara
1951: Combined oral contraceptive pill: Djerassi, Miramontes, and Rosenkranz [234]
1951: Liquid Paper: Bette Nesmith Graham
1951: Nuclear power reactor: Walter Zinn
1952: Floppy disk: Yoshiro Nakamatsu[235]
1952: Optical fiber: Narinder Singh Kapany
1952: Fusion bomb: Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam
1952: Hovercraft: Christopher Cockerell
1953: MASER: Charles Townes
1953: Medical ultrasonography
1954: Radar gun: Bryce K. Brown
1954: Synthetic diamond: Tracy Hall
1954: Geodesic dome: Buckminster Fuller
1955: Hard Drive: Reynold Johnson with IBM
1955: Video phone: Gregorio Y. Zara in the Philippines
1956: Digital clock
1956: Videocassette recorder: Ampex
1957: Jet Boat: William Hamilton
1958: Integrated circuit: Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor
1958: Communications satellite: Kenneth Masterman-Smith
1958: Implantable pacemaker: Rune Elmqvist

1960s
1960: Laser: Theodore Harold Maiman
1961: Optical disc: David Paul Gregg
1961: Cochlear implant: William House
1961: Human spaceflight: Yuri Gagarin, Sergey Korolyov, Kerim Kerimov[236]
1962: Light-emitting diode (LED): Nick Holonyak
1962: Space observatory: Ball Brothers Aerospace Corporation [2]
1963: Computer mouse: Douglas Engelbart
1967: Space dock: Kerim Kerimov[236][237]
1967: Automatic Teller Machine: John Shepherd-Barron
1967: Hypertext: Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson
1968: Video game console: Ralph H. Baer
1960s: Packet switching: Paul Baran and Donald Davies, independently
1969: ARPANET (first wide-area packet switching network): United States Department of Defense[8]

1970s
1970: Relational database management system: Edgar F. Codd
1971: Space station: Kerim Kerimov[236][237]
1971: E-mail: Ray Tomlinson[238]
1971: Liquid Crystal Display: James Fergason
1971: Microprocessor: Federico Faggin and Marcian Hoff
1971: Pocket calculator: Sharp Corporation
1971: Magnetic resonance imaging: Raymond V. Damadian
1972: Computed tomography: Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield
1973: Hybrid rice in China[239]
1973: Ethernet: Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs
1973: Genetically modified organism: Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer
1973: Personal computer: Xerox PARC
1974: Microcredit: Muhammad Yunus
1974: Microfinance: Muhammad Yunus
1974: Rubik's Cube: Ernő Rubik
1974: Hybrid vehicle: Victor Wouk [3]
1975: DNA sequencing by chain termination Frederick Sanger
1975: Digital camera: Steven Sasson
1976: Gore-Tex fabric: W. L. Gore
1977: Personal stereo: Andreas Pavel
1977: Mobile phone: Bell Labs [4]
1978: Spreadsheet: Dan Bricklin

1980s
1980: Compact Disc: Philips Electronics, Sony Corp[8]
1981: Scanning tunneling microscope: Gerd Karl Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
1982: Insulated gate bipolar transistor: Hans Becke and Carl Wheatley RCA
1982: ACE inhibitor: John R. Vane
1982: Artificial heart: Robert Jarvik, incorporating modifications to earlier experimental designs
1983: Camcorder: Sony
1983: Internet: first TCP/IP network: Robert E. Kahn, Vint Cerf and others
1984: Lithotripsy: Claude Dornier
1985: Polymerase chain reaction: Kary Mullis
1985: DNA fingerprinting: Alec Jeffreys
1987: Statin, cholesterol drug: Carl Hoffman
1987: Digital Light Processing: Dr. Larry Hornbeck, Texas Instruments

1990s
1990: World Wide Web: Tim Berners-Lee[240][8]
1993: Global Positioning System: United States Department of Defense
1993: Blue LED: Shuji Nakamura
1994: Wiki: Ward Cunningham[241]
1997: Non-mechanical digital audio player: SaeHan Information Systems[242]


3rd millennium

21st century

2000s
Main articles: 2000s in science and technology and List of emerging technologies
2001: Self-contained artificial heart[citation needed]
2001: PageRank: Sergey Brin Larry Page[243]

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