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美国历史上最糟糕的十个瞬间 发表评论(0) 编辑词条

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美国历史上最糟糕的十个瞬间编辑本段回目录

这张表是为了回应前段时间发表的、所谓美国历史上“最伟大的十个瞬间”。很多人反对并质问美国历史上“最糟糕的十个瞬间”。所以在此,仅仅是为了呈现美国历史好与坏的两方面。这些事按时间顺序排列,如果你有什么建议,请随意发表。我们鼓励建设性意见,但如果纯粹为了争吵的话就算了,那并不能带来什么。无论如何,罗列如下:

1 The Trail of Tears 1838

1. 血泪之路 1838



The Trail of Tears was the relocation and movement of Native Americans, including many members of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States. The phrase originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831. Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while en route to their destinations, and many died, including 4,000 of the 15,000 relocated Cherokee. By 1837, 46,000 Native Americans from these southeastern nations had been removed from their homelands thereby opening 25 million acres for settlement by European Americans

血泪之路是北美范围内的迁徙运动,其中有大量彻罗基族、马斯科吉族、塞米诺族和乔克托族等合众国部落,他们被迫从故乡迁徙到合众国西部的印第安人保留区(现在叫俄克拉荷马州)。血泪之路这个词源于1831,人们对乔克托族部落迁徙的描写。很多美洲土著在途中受到疾病和饥饿的折磨并且死去,其中15000名彻罗基族人有4000在途中死去了。到1837年为止,46000名原本住在美洲东南方的土著人被来自欧洲的美国人逼着迁徙到了两千五百万英里外的地方居住。

2 The Dred Scott Decision 1857

2. 斯科特判决案 1857

Slide1-1

The Dred Scott Decision was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that ruled that people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants—whether or not they were slaves—were not protected by the Constitution and could never be citizens of the United States. It also held that the United States Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories. The Court also ruled that because slaves were not citizens, they could not sue in court. Lastly, the Court ruled that slaves—as chattel or private property—could not be taken away from their owners without due process.

斯科特判决案是美国最高法院判决那些有非洲血统的美国人——黑奴,或者他们的后裔,无论他们本身是不是奴隶——不被宪法保护,并且一律不得成为合众国公民。同时,美国国会也无权禁止联邦直辖区下的奴隶贸易。法院还判决了因为奴隶不是公民,他们也不能上听控告。最后,法院判决奴隶——作为动产或稀有财产——不经正当程序不得离开自己的主人。

3 The battle of Antietam 1862

3. 安提耶坦之战 1862

24-1

The battle of Antietam, fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties. The Union had 12,401 casualties with 2,108 dead. Confederate casualties were 10,318 with 1,546 dead. This represented 25% of the Federal force and 31% of the Confederate. More Americans died on September 17, 1862, than on any other day in the nation’s military history. Several generals died as a result of the battle, including Maj. Gens. Joseph K. Mansfield , Israel B. Richardson and Brig. Gen. Isaac P. Rodman on the Union side (all mortally wounded), and Brig. Gens. Lawrence O. Branch, William E. Starke on the Confederate side (killed).

安提耶坦之战开始于1862年9月17日,马里兰州夏普斯堡和安提耶坦河附近,是马里兰战役的一部分,也是北方国土上南北战争第一次主要战斗。它是美国历史上一天内伤亡量最大的战斗,大约有23000人员伤亡。美联邦有12401人伤亡,其中2108人死亡,25%是联邦人员,31%是邦联人员。在1862年9月17日是美国军事史上死亡人数最多的一天。几个将军因此丧命,比如联邦一侧有Maj. Gens. Joseph K. Mansfield,Israel B. Richardson(皆致命伤),邦联一侧有Brig. Gen. Isaac P. Rodman,William E. Starke(被杀)。

4 The Stock Market Crash 1929

4. 华尔街股灾 1929

Government-Control-Stock-Market-Crash-1

A massive drop in value of the stock market helped trigger the Great Depression which lasted until the increased economic activity spurred by WW2 got us going back in the right direction. The Great Depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, and international trade plunged by a half to two-thirds. Unemployment in the United States rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60 percent.

股价暴跌促使了美国经济大萧条,它持续到二战,然后才开始经济复苏。大萧条事实上对每一个人都带来了毁灭性后果,无论贵贱。个人收入,税收,盈利和定价下降了,国际贸易有一半到三分之一受到影响。美国失业率达25%,一些地区高达33%。世界上很多城市深受其害,特别是依赖重工业的。很多国家被迫停产。以农业卫生或住在农村地区的人们收入大约下降了60%。

5 Interment Camps 1942

5. 日裔强制收容 1942

Japanese-Evacuation

The US government came to the conclusion that interning Japanese-American citizens was the best of a number of bad options. Roughly a hundred thousand Japanese-Americans ended up in camps. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 on February 19, uprooting Japanese Americans on the west coast to be sent to Internment camps. The order led to the internment of Japanese Americans or AJAs (Americans of Japanese Ancestry) in which some 120,000 ethnic Japanese people were held in internment camps for the duration of the war. Of the Japanese interned, 62% were Nisei (American-born, second-generation Japanese American and therefore American citizens) or Sansei (third-generation Japanese American, also American citizens) and the rest were Issei (Japanese immigrants and resident aliens, first-generation Japanese American).

美国政府加入二战使得成为一名日美双重国籍公民从最好的选择掉到最坏的选择。大概有10万美籍日本人被收容到了最后。美国总统富兰克林罗斯福于2月19日签署了行政命令9066号,把西岸全部美籍人日本人扔进了收容所。这项命令使得美籍人日本人或者祖上有日本血缘的美国人中,大约120000种族意义上的日本人在收容所被迫待到了战争结束。在这些人中,62%为第二、三代日裔美国人,其他是第一代移居北美的日本人。

6 Dropping of the Bomb 1945

6. 丢原子弹 1945

798

A decision was taken to drop atomic bombs on Japanese civilians killing roughly 200,000 people in total to ‘shorten’ the war. ( It completely ignored the fact that war is between armies, not civilians). On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 AM, the nuclear bomb ‘Little Boy’ was dropped on Hiroshima by an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, directly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought total casualties to 90,000-140,000. Approximately 69% of the city’s buildings were completely destroyed, and about 7% severely damaged. On August 9, 1945, Nagasaki was the target of the world’s second atomic bomb attack (and second plutonium bomb; the first was tested in New Mexico, USA) at 11:02 a.m., when the north of the city was destroyed and an estimated 40,000 people were killed by the bomb nicknamed “Fat Man.” According to statistics found within Nagasaki Peace Park, the death toll from the atomic bombing totaled 73,884, as well as another 74,909 injured, and another several hundred thousand diseased and dying due to fallout and other illness caused by radiation.

美国决定把原子弹丢到日本以尽快结束战争,这一决定使得20万平民死亡。(这完全忽视了战争是军队之间的事,不针对平民。)在1945年8月6日周一,早上8时15分,美国B29轰炸机艾诺拉盖号把“小男孩”号核弹丢到了广岛,直接弄死了大约8万人。到这年结束,受伤或受辐射影响的伤亡人数大约总共才9万到14万人。大约69%的城市建筑被彻底摧毁,7%严重损坏。在1945年8月9日上午11时2分,长崎又成了世界第二个受核弹袭击地区(也是第二个钚弹,第一个在美国新墨西哥州用于测试),城市北部被摧毁,大约4万平民被这克“胖子”弄死。根据在长崎平和公园找到的资料,死亡人数总共73884人,伤者74909人,另外有几十万因辐射暴病而亡。

7 Bay of Pigs 1961

7 猪湾事件 1961

Bopigs 16663S

Kennedy’s decision to go forward with the invasion and then deny them air support doomed the entire enterprise to failure. Today, 44 years later, Fidel Castro, a diehard enemy of the United States, is still in power. The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days. Bad Cuban-American relations were made worse by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. The invasion is often criticized as making Castro even more popular, adding nationalistic sentiments to the support for his economic policies. Following the initial attacks by 8 CIA-owned B-26s on Cuban airfields, he declared the revolution “Marxist-Leninist”. There are still yearly nationwide drills in Cuba during the ‘Dia de la Defensa’ (Defense Day) to prepare the population for an invasion.

肯尼迪下令入侵古巴,接着拒绝他们的空中支援,造成了完全失败。现在,44年过去了菲德尔 卡斯特罗,一个美国顽固的敌人,仍然很有力量。这项计划于1961年4月启动,在肯尼迪担任总统后3月之内。由苏联训练和武装的古巴军事力量,在三天内击败了入侵者。古巴和美国的糟糕关系因1962年的古巴导弹危机变得雪上加霜。这场入侵经常被批评“让卡斯特罗变得更有受欢迎,使得国家感情支持了他的经济政策”。在最初的8架CIA所属的B-26轰炸机飞达古巴领空后,他宣布古巴革命。现在每年古巴在“Dia de la Defensa”(国防日)期间还积极动员国民准备应对下一次侵略。

8  Vietnam 1960s

8 越南战争 1960年代

Vietnam-War

The United States entered the war to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. Military advisors arrived, beginning in 1950. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with U.S. troop levels tripling in 1961 and tripling again in 1962. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, including 3 to 4 million Vietnamese from both sides, 1.5 to 2 million Laotians and Cambodians, and 58,159 U.S. soldiers. The Case-Church Amendment, passed by the U.S. Congress in response to the anti-war movement, prohibited direct U.S. military involvement after August 15, 1973. U.S. military and economic aid continued until 1975. The capture of Saigon by North Vietnamese army in April 1975 marked the end of Vietnam War. North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year.

美国为了防止南越被共产主义者控制而投身越南战争。从1950年美国就开始派遣军事顾问,在六十年代初逐步增强干涉,1961年军队增加了三倍,1962年又增加了两倍。战争造成了巨大的人员伤亡,包括3到4百万双方的越南人,1.5到2百万老挝人和柬埔寨人,还有58159名美国士兵。国会通过了“凯斯-丘奇”修正案以回应反战运动,禁止1973年8月15日后美国直接军事介入。美国军事和经济援助持续到1975年。越南战争以北越军队1975年8月占领西贡而结束。南北越从此得以统一。

9 9/11 2001

9. 911事件 2001

9-11-Attacks

Terrorist madmen attack the Twin Towers and Pentagon, kill nearly 3000 Americans, and set off a war on terrorism. (Some accounts suggest it was an inside job, or a horrific case of neglect). Afghanistan invaded to destroy the groups (Taliban & al Qaeda) America itself made, trained & armed to fight the Russian invasion. The campaign is still going on and has spilled into neighboring Pakistan, India & Iran, highlighting the inability of American forces to contain the war. The initial attack removed the Taliban from power, but Taliban forces have since regained some strength. T he war has been less successful in achieving the goal of restricting al-Qaeda’s movement than anticipated. Since 2006, Afghanistan has seen threats to its stability from increased Taliban-led insurgent activity, record-high levels of illegal drug production, and a fragile government with limited control outside of Kabul

恐怖主义者袭击了双子塔和五角大楼,弄死了将近三千美国人,这导致了反恐战争的开始。(有些档案表明这是内部工作,或者纯属疏忽)。美国入侵阿富汗,试图摧毁塔利班和基地组织,而这些人的训练和武装都是美国人提供的,为了对付苏联的入侵。战役还在继续,并且把巴基斯坦、印度和伊朗都拖下了水,这表明了美国没能力控制战争。最初的袭击使塔利班失去战斗力量,但他们后来又恢复了实力。战争没有使得反基地组织运动效果达到预期目标。在2006年后,阿富汗的稳定受到日益增加的塔利班叛乱者和大量非法毒品制造业的威胁,只有一个受喀布尔很有限控制的脆弱的政府。

10 Iraq 2003

10 伊拉克 2003

Iraq-War-2003

The ‘Invasion of Iraq’ on the basis of alleged reports saying Iraq possesses WMD’s. Nothing found but hundreds of thousands of lives shattered. Bush later admitted that “[my] biggest regret of the presidency has to have been the intelligence failure in Iraq. In 2005, the Central Intelligence Agency released a report saying that no weapons of mass destruction had been found in Iraq. The invasion of Iraq was strongly opposed by some traditional U.S. allies, including France, Germany, New Zealand, and Canada. Their leaders argued that there was no evidence of WMD and that invading Iraq was not justified in the context of UNMOVIC’s February 12, 2003 report. On February 15, 2003, a month before the invasion, there were many worldwide protests against the Iraq war, including a rally of three million people in Rome, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest ever anti-war rally. According to the French academic Dominique Reynié, between January 3 and April 12, 2003, 36 million people across the globe took part in almost 3,000 protests against the Iraq war, but the decision remained & Iraq was invaded.

“伊拉克战争”是基于所谓宣称伊拉克有大量大规模杀伤性武器(WMD)。结果毛都没找到,反而成千上万人的平静生活被打破。小布什后来承认“我总统生涯中最后悔的事就是伊拉克情报工作的失败。”在2005年,CIA发布了一份报告,称在伊拉克没有发现任何大规模杀伤性武器,伊拉克战争被美国一些传统盟友强烈反对,包括法国,德国,新西兰和加拿大。他们的领导人认为没有WMD的任何证据,根据联合国监核会2003年2月12日的报告,入侵伊拉克毫无正当性可言。在2003年2月15日,战争前一个月,世界上有很多反战运动,包括罗马三百万人的机会,因其人数之众被载入吉尼斯纪录。根据法国学者 Dominique Reynié,在2003年2月3日到4月12日之间,全球3千6百万人加入了大约3000起反战活动中,但美国仍一意孤行,发动了伊拉克战争。

Bonus McCarthyism

福利 麦卡锡主义

Mccarthyism-1

McCarthyism is the politically motivated practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. Originally coined to criticize the anti-communist pursuits of U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, “McCarthyism” soon took on a broader meaning, describing the excesses of similar efforts. During the post–World War II era of McCarthyism, many thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies. Many people suffered loss of employment, destruction of their careers, and even imprisonment. Historian Ellen Schrecker wrote that “in this country, McCarthyism did more damage to the constitution than the American Communist Party ever did.”

麦卡锡主义是政治上一种促进无中生有的控告不忠、颠覆或叛国的习惯。起初这个词是为了批评反共主义者,美国参议院约瑟夫麦卡锡,而麦卡锡主义这个词很快扩大了其原本意义,用以描述类似的暴行。在二战之后的麦卡锡年代,成千上万的美国人被控共产主义者或同情共产主义者,然后被政府或私人性质的事务委员会请去喝咖啡。很多人失业,他们的事业被毁,甚至被监禁。历史学家Ellen Schrecker写道“在这个国家中,麦卡锡主义对美国共产党的伤害比任何时候都大。”

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标签: 美国历史上最糟糕的十个瞬间

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