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超级大国知识竞争编辑本段回目录

By Sean Coughlan BBC News education correspondent

作者:Sean Coughlan(英国广播公司新闻部教育专栏记者)

28 September 2011 Last updated at 11:04 GMT

发布时间:2011年9月28日;最新更新时间:格林尼治标准时间11时04分


Giant technology cluster, Grenoble "Knowledge clusters" are being built in France to kick start hi-tech industries

“知识群”正在法国建设当中,以启动高科技产业。

Knowledge is power - economic power - and there's a scramble for that power taking place around the globe.

知识就是力量-既经济力量-这种力量的较量正在全球上演。

In the United States, Europe and in rising powers such as China, there is a growth-hungry drive to invest in hi-tech research and innovation.

      在美国,欧洲和正在兴起的一些大国,例如中国,都在积极地向高科技研发和创新投资。

They are looking for the ingredients that, like Google, will turn a university project into a corporation. They are looking for the jobs that will replace those lost in the financial crash.

      大国们在寻找具有Google这样特质的企业,能够把一个大学项目转化成一个公司,以此来填补在金融危机中丧失的工作岗位。

Not to invest would now be "unthinkable", says Maire Geoghegan-Quinn, the European Commissioner responsible for research, innovation and science, who is trying to spur the European Union to keep pace in turning ideas into industries.

      负责研究,创新和科学的欧盟专员Maire Geoghegan-Quinn说道,不投资现在是被认为“不可理解”的,她正在力促欧盟将一些好的概念想法向产业转化。

She has announced £6bn funding to kick-start projects next year - with the aim of supporting 16,000 universities, research teams and businesses. A million new research jobs will be needed to match global rivals in areas such as health, energy and the digital economy.

      她已宣布在明年将利用60亿法郎的资金来启动项目-这些资金用以支持共16000所大学,研究小组和企业。需要新增100万名研究人员,以参与全球竞争市场,例如在医疗,能源和数字经济等领域。

  

Maire Geoghegan-Quinn: "The knowledge economy is the economy that is going to create the jobs"

Maire Geoghegan-Quinn:“知识经济创造就业机会。”

'Innovation emergency'

欧洲的”创新危机“

Emphasising that this is about keeping up, rather than grandstanding, she talks about Europe facing an "innovation emergency".

      她强调这些项目的目的是要让欧洲继续和其它地区起头并进,而不是原地踏步,她谈到欧洲面临一场“创新危机”。

"In China, you see children going into school at 6.30am and being there until 8 or 9pm, concentrating on science, technology and maths. And you have to ask yourself, would European children do that?

      “在中国,孩子们上午6点半去学校,一直到晚上8点或9点钟,致力学习自然科学,技术和数学。试问,欧洲的孩子们能做到么?”

"That's the competition that's out there. We have to rise to that - and member states have to realise that the knowledge economy is the economy that is going to create the jobs in the future, it's the area they have to invest in."

      “这就是我们现在面临的的竞争状况。我们要提升竞争力-欧盟成员国应该意识到,知识经济在将来会创造工作岗位,有必要在此投资。”

But the challenge for Europe, she says, is to be able to commercialise ideas as successfully as the United States, in the manner of the iPhone or Facebook.

      她说道,但是欧洲的任务是,像美国将创意成功地商业化,就像iPhone和Facebook一样。

The commissioner says that she was made abruptly aware of the barriers facing would-be innovators at the Nobel Prize awards ceremony dinner.

      专员说,她突然意识面临的障碍可能是,有好创意的人没有资金。

Instead of basking in the reflected glory of a prize winner funded by European grants, she said she had to listen to a speech attacking the red-tape and bureaucracy - and "generally embarrassing the hell out of me".

      创意需要研发资金,但是没有专项基金,而是由欧洲政府来拨款。她说到,听到那些抨击官僚体制的演讲-“这种研发资金发放状况,让身为负责人的我感到非常惭愧。”

Determined that this would never happen again, she is driving ahead with a plan to simplify access to research funding and to turn the idea of a single European research area into a reality by 2014.

      下定决心改变这种情况,她快速提出一个计划,目的是简化研发基金的获得方法,在2014年实现一个单独的欧洲研发中心。

With storm clouds dominating the economic outlook, she sees investing in research and hi-tech industries - under the banner of the "Innovation Union" - as of vital practical importance in the push towards creating jobs and growth.

      在目前经济不景气的条件下,在“创新联盟”的口号下,她把对研发和高科技产业的投资,视为是对创造就业机会和促进经济的最有效的努力

"We have to be able to say to the man and woman in the street, suffering intensely because of the economic crisis: this is a dark tunnel, but there is light at the end and we're showing you where it is."

      “我们要告诉对因经济危机正严重遭受苦难的人们:这种努力,虽然现在还是在黑暗中前行,但是前途是光明的,我们给你指出方向在哪里。”


SCIENCE CITIES

科学城:

GIANT - the Grenoble Innovation for Advanced New Technologies - is an ambitious French example of a knowledge cluster, combining academic research and commercial expertise.

      “GIANT”是法国格勒诺布尔市研究超新技术的研发中心,是法国“知识群”的典型例子,知识群里联合了学术研究机构和商业机构。

The classic examples have been in California and Boston in the US, and around Cambridge in the UK. Purpose-built centres include Education City in Qatar, Science City in Zurich and Digital Media City in Seoul.

      经典例子是美国的加利福尼亚州和波士顿,还有英国的剑桥。报同样目的的地方还有卡塔尔的教育城,苏黎世的科学城,首尔的数字城。

There will be 40,000 people living, studying and working on the GIANT campus. Centres of research excellence will be side-by-side with major companies who will develop the commercial applications. This includes nanotechnology, green energy and the European Synchotron Radiation Facility (pictured above). A business school, the Grenoble Ecole de Management, is also part on site.

      将有40万人生活,学习和工作在GIANT。高级研发中心将和开发商业应用的大公司同步兴起。这里有纳米技术,绿色能源和欧洲同步辐射中心(上图),格勒诺布尔高等管理学院也在这儿。

This hi-tech version of a factory town will have its own transport links and a green environment designed to attract people to live and stay here.

      这座充满高科技的工业城将拥有自己的运输连接道路和绿化,用来吸人们到这里居住。


Global forum

全球化论坛

There has been sharpening interest in this borderland between education and the economy.

      全球化论坛对教育和经济之间联系的关注徒增。

This month the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) staged its inaugural Global Forum on the Knowledge Economy.

      这个月,经济合作与发展组织(OECD)举行了关于知识经济的全球论坛。

This was a kind of brainstorming for governments living on a shoestring.

      这是具有共同经济利益的国家间的商讨。

The UK's Universities Minister, David Willetts, called for a reduction in unnecessary regulation, which slowed down areas such as space research.

      英国的教育部大臣,David Willetts,呼吁降低一些不必要的限制,例如有些法规减慢了太空研究领域的发展。

The French response has been to increase spending, launching a £30bn grand project to set up a series of "innovation clusters" - in which universities, major companies and research institutions are harnessed together to create new knowledge-based industries.

      法国的意见是增加投资,要启动一项30亿法郎的大项目,用来建立一系列的“创新群”,在这些地方,大学,大公司,研究所联合起来,创造以科技为主的新产业区。

It's an attempt to replicate the digital launchpad of Silicon Valley in California. And in some ways these are the like mill towns of the digital age, clustered around science campuses and hi-tech employers.

      这种尝试是要复制加利福尼亚州的硅谷数字产业园,在某种程度上看,这些地方是数字时代的工业城市,这里团聚着高科技大学和高技术人才。

But the knowledge economy does not always scatter its seed widely. When the US is talked about as an innovation powerhouse, much of this activity is based in narrow strips on the east and west coasts.

      但是知识经济并不总是遍地开花。人们称美国为创新强国,主要由于它东部和西部海岸的狭长地带的创新区。

A map of Europe measuring the number of patent applications shows a similar pattern - with high concentrations in pockets of England, France, Germany and Finland.

      一张计算欧洲专利数量的地图说明了相似的情况-专利主要集中在英国,法国,德国和芬兰。

There are also empty patches - innovation dust bowls - which will raise tough political questions if good jobs are increasingly concentrated around these hi-tech centres. The International Monetary Fund warned last week that governments must invest more in education to escape a "hollowing out" of jobs.

      还有很多的空白地带-这里缺少创新-如果好工作都日渐集中到这些高科技中心,这在将来会引起严重的政治问题。国际货币基金会在上周提出警告,多国政府必须增加对教育的投资,以避免出现没有好工作岗位的“空洞化”现象。


Knowledge economy:Digital text books switch on;China winning the school race;Global best school buildings;Africa out of the loop

知识经济:韩国数字教学中国学校全球的学校非洲教育


speed of change

改革的速度

Jan Muehlfeit, chairman of Microsoft Europe, explained what was profoundly different about these new digital industries - that they expand at a speed and scale that would have been impossible in the traditional manufacturing industries.

      微软欧洲区主席Jan Muehifeit解释了这些新型数字产业与以往产业的根本不同-也就是说,在传统制造业地区想要快速开展数字产业是不可能的。

Governments trying to respond to such quicksilver businesses needed to ensure that young people were well-educated, creative and adaptable, he said.

      他说道,政府想要面对这样的瞬息万变的商业环境,就要保证年轻人都接受良好的教育,有创造力和适应能力。

As an example of a success story, Mr Muehlfeit highlighted South Korea. A generation ago they deliberately invested heavily in raising education standards. Now, as a direct result of this upskilling, the West is importing South Korean cars and televisions, he said.

      Muehlfeit举了一个成功案例,着重强调了韩国。在30以前,韩国决定在教育水平上大力投入。到现在,这项措施的直接影响是,西方国家要从韩国进口汽车和电视。

Perhaps it is not a coincidence that South Korea's government has its own dedicated knowledge economy minister.

      令韩国政府作出这样的决定,也许并不是一个巧合事件。

Robert Aumann, a Nobel Prize winner in economics, attending the OECD event, also emphasised this link between the classroom and the showroom. "How do you bring about innovation? Education, education, education," he said.

      诺贝尔经济学奖获得者Robert Aumann参加了OECD的会议,也强调了教育与创新之间的关系。他说道:“怎样才能带来创新?唯有教育”。

But this is far from a case of replacing jobs in old rusty industries with new hi-tech versions.

      但是,要想把旧产业工作岗位转化到新型高科技产业,仅仅加大教育投资是不够的。

Gordon Day, president of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the US-based professional association for technology, made the point that digital businesses might generate huge incomes but they might not employ many people. In some cases they might only have a payroll one tenth of a traditional company of a similar size.

      美国电气及电子工程师学会(总部在美国的专业技术学会)主席Gordon Day指出,数字企业也许会产生大量的财富,但是他们也许不会雇佣很多人。有时,与传统公司相似规模的数字企业也许只需要1/10人的人员。

It's an uncomfortable truth for governments looking for a recovery in the jobs market.

      对于旨在复苏就业市场的政府来说这不是好消息。

Degrees of employment

雇员的学历

But standing still isn't an option.

      但是原地不动也不是办法。

Figures released from the OECD have shown how much the financial crisis has changed the jobs market.

      OECD发布的结果显示,金融危机强烈地影响了就业市场。

There were 11 million jobs lost, half of them in the United States, and with low-skilled workers and manufacturing the hardest hit. If those losses are to be recovered, it is going to be with higher-skilled jobs, many of them requiring degrees.

      金融危机导致了1100万的人失业,其中有一半发生在美国,他们是低技术水平的工人和制造业人员。如果想要这些失业人员走上那些高科技岗位,他们中的许多人需要学历。

But graduate numbers show the shifting balance of power.

      但是大学毕业生的数量显示了学历人员分布的转变。

From a standing start, China now has 12% of graduates in the world's big economies - approaching the share of the UK, Germany and France put together. The incumbent superpower, the United States, still towers above with 26% of the graduates.

      中国拥有世界12%的大学毕业生-达到了英国、德国、法国的总和。超级大国美国仍然高居榜首占26%。

South Korea now has the sixth biggest share of the world's graduates, ahead of countries such as France and Italy.

      目前韩国的毕业生数量占有率排名第六位,领先法国和意大利。

It means that the US and European countries have to compete on skills with these rising Asian powers.

      也就是说,美国和欧洲国家要和这些崛起的亚洲大国在技术上较量。

Class of 2011 in Shanghai: China now has the second biggest share of the world's graduates

上海的2011界毕业生:中国目前的大学毕业生数量是全球第二位

But the US university system remains a formidably well-funded generator of research. A league table, generated for the first time this month, looked at the global universities with research making the greatest impact - with US universities taking 40 out of the top 50 places.

      但是美国的大学体系仍然是拥有最强资金的研发机构。一份全球大学拥有影像显著的研究成果的数量成绩表在本月的第一次考察结果显示,最具影响力的50个成果当中,美国的大学占了40个。

Their wealth was emphasised this week with the announcement of financial figures from the two Boston university powerhouses, Harvard and MIT, which had a combined endowment of £27bn.

      他们的财力在本周再次被证实,波士顿的2所驰名大学的财务数字的声明,哈佛和麻省理工一共得到270亿美元的捐款。

"The triangle of innovation, education and skills is of extreme importance, defining both the problem and the solution," said the OECD's secretary general, Jose Angel Gurria.

      OECD秘书长Jose Angel Gurria说道:“创新,教育,技能三者的关系十分重要,既能从中发现问题,又能找到解决之道。”

"It's a world of cut-throat competition. We lost so much wealth, we lost so many exports, we lost so much well-being, we lost jobs, job, jobs," he told delegates in Paris.

      Gurria在巴黎对代表团成员说:“这是一个激烈竞争的世界。我们失去很多财富,失去了很多出口,失去了很多福利,失去了很多很多的工作。”

"We must re-boot our economies with a more intelligent type of growth."

      他还说道:“我们必须用更智能型的经济增长来重振经济。”“我们必须用更智能型的经济增长来重振经济。”

Chart showing graduate share

参考文献编辑本段回目录

  • 原文作者:Sean Coughlan
  • 原文来源:bbc.co.uk
  • http://article.yeeyan.org/view/237128/223839

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