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硅谷这个词最早是由 Don Hoefler 在 1971 年创造的。它从 1971 年的 1 月 11 日开始被用于《每周商业》报纸电子新闻的一系列文章的题目——美 国硅谷。之所以名字当中有一个“硅”字,是因为当地的企业多数是与由 高纯度的硅制造的半导体及电脑相关的。而“谷”则是从圣塔克拉拉谷中 得到的。而当时的硅谷就是旧金山湾南端沿着 101 公路,从门罗公园、帕 拉托经山景城、桑尼维尔到硅谷的中心圣克拉拉,再经坎贝尔直达圣何赛 的这条狭长地带。这些位于旧金山湾两岸地区的加入使硅谷迅猛地发展起 来。 在开始的十几年时间里, 由于记者的拼写错误它都被误称为“硅胶谷”, 因为硅谷这个词语还没有融合到美国文化中。硅胶是一种广泛用于隆胸和 堵露等作用的物质。 
silicon chip History of the Silicon Glen

形成原因 1.早期无线电和军事技术的基础 1. 早期无线电和军事技术的基础 旧金山湾区在很早就是美国海军的研发基地。1909 年,美国第一个有 固定节目时间的广播电台在圣何塞诞生。1933 年,森尼维尔 (Sunnyvale) 空军基地(后来改名为墨菲飞机场)成为美国海军飞艇的基地。在基地周 围开始出现一些为海军服务的技术公司。二战后,海军将西海岸的业务移 往加州南部的圣迭戈,国家航天委员会(美国航天局 NASA 的前身)将墨 菲飞机场 (Moffett Field) 的一部分用于航天方面的研究。为航天服务的 公司开始出现,包括后来著名的洛克希德公司 (Lockheed)。 2.斯坦福工业园 2. 斯坦福工业园 (Stanford Industrial Park) 二战结束后,美国的大学回流的学生骤增。为满足财务需求,同时给 毕业生提供就业机会,斯坦福大学采纳 Frederick Terman 的建议开辟工业 园,允许高技术公司租用其地作为办公用地。最早入驻的公司是 1930 年代 由斯坦福毕业生创办的瓦里安公司 (Varian Associates)。Terman 同时为 民用技术的初创企业提供风险资本。 惠普公司是最成功的例子之一。 1990 在 年代中期,柯达公司和通用电气公司也在工业园驻有研究机构,斯坦福工 业园逐步成为技术中心。 3.硅晶体管 3. 硅晶体管 1956 年,晶体管的发明人威廉·肖克利 (William Shockley) 在斯坦 福大学南边的山景城创立肖克利半导体实验室。1957 年,肖克利决定停止 对硅晶体管的研究。当时公司的八位工程师出走成立了仙童 (Fairchild) 半导体公司,称为“八叛逆”。“八叛逆”里的诺伊斯和摩尔后来创办了 英特尔 (Intel) 公司。在仙童工作过的人中,斯波克后来成为国民半导体 公司的 CEO,另一位桑德斯则创办了 AMD 公司。 4.风险资本 4. 风险资本 (Venture Capital) 从 1972 年第一家风险资本在紧挨斯坦福的 Sand Hill 路落户,风险 资本极大促进了硅谷的成长。1980 年苹果公司的上市吸引了更多风险资本 来到硅谷。Sand Hill 在硅谷成为风险资本的代名词。 5.软件产业兴起 5. 软件产业兴起 除了半导体工业,硅谷同时以软件产业和互联网服务产业著称。施乐 公司在 Palo Alto 的研究中心在 OOP (面向对象的编程) GUI , (图形界面) , 以太网和激光打印机等领域都有开创性的贡献。现今的许多著名企业都得 益于施乐公司的研究,例如苹果和微软先后将 GUI 用于各自的操作系统, 而思科公司的创立源自将众多网络协议在斯坦福校园网内自由传送的想法。 
On Silly Silicon names, the Network Centric Model, and the New Global Game
特点 硅谷是随着 20 世纪 60 年代中期以来,微电子技术高速发展而逐步形 成的;其特点是以附近一些具有雄厚科研力量的美国一流大学斯坦福、加 州大学伯克利分校等世界知名大学为依托,以高技术的中小公司群为基础, 并拥有思科、英特尔、惠普、苹果等大公司,融科学、技术、生产为一体。 硅谷拥有大大小小电子工业公司达 10000 家以上,他们所生产的半导 体集成电路和电子计算机约占全美 1/3 和 1/6。80 年代后,随着生物、空 间、海洋、通讯、能源材料等新兴技术的研究机构在该地区纷纷出现,硅 谷客观上成为美国高新技术的摇篮。现在硅谷已成为世界各国高科技聚集 区的代名词。 

精神:允许失败的创新,崇尚竞争,平等开放! 美国硅谷高技术工业特点 ●从业人员具有高水平的知识和技能,其中科学家和工程师占较大比 例; ●增长速度比传统工业快得多,并且处在不断的变化之中,产品更新 换代的周期较短; ●研究开发费用在销售额中占的比例较高; ●产品面向世界市场。 美国硅谷区位因素 ●●●● 地理位置优越环境优美; ●气候宜人; ●交通便利; ●全世界的人才高地; ●市场稳定; ●创新环境和创新文化。
目录

背景资料编辑本段回目录

History & Future
by Gregory Gromov

 

In the beginning was the WORD and the word was... Silicon Valley. Don Hoefler  is credited with coining the phrase: Silicon ValleySilicon Valley is the only place on Earth not trying to figure out how to become Silicon Valley.       ~Robert Metcalfe

 

The term Silicon Valley was used occasionally mostly byeasterners who would mention making a trip to Silicon Valley, until 1971 when it was popularized in a series of articles, ``Silicon Valley USA,'' written by Don Hoefler for Electronic News. Quite likely it was the first time the term was used in print (Don C. Hoefler, publisher of Microelectronics News, telephone interview, 9 January 1985) ...

Hoefler was choosing a name for an article about the semiconductor industry that he was writing for Electronic News. Ralph Vaerst, then president of Ion Equipment, suggested Silicon Valley. Hoefler named his article, ``Silicon Valley USA;'' it was a series that ran for 3 weeks, beginning 11 January 1971."

~ Carolyn Tajnai, 1995

 

uploads/201309/13800674246xDluQJU.jpg

In 1971, in a series of articles that Hoefler wrote for ELECTRONIC NEWS, a weekly tabloid, he first used the phrase "SiliconValley" to describe the congeries of electronics firms mushroomingin Santa Clara county. "He pioneered the coverage of Silicon Valley as a distinct community," - said Michael S. Malone,author of a book chronicling the industry called THE BIG SCORE."When we think of Silicon Valley as a collection of charactersand eccentrics, he's the one who put that whole idea in our minds,"- said Malone.

Hoefler began his career in electronics journalism as a publicist for Fairchild Semiconductor in Mountain View. He subsequently worked as a reporter for Fairchild Publications, owner of ELECTRONIC NEWS, and then held editorial positions with RCA Corp. and with McGrawHill.

Don C. Hoefler died in South San Francisco on April 15, 1986 at the ageof 63. He was publishing a weekly newsletter called MICROELECTRONICS NEWS at the time of his death, following a recent cerebrovascular accident

 Datamation ,1986, May 15, by Cahners Publishing Company

don_hoefl86.jpg (7742 bytes)

 (read more about Don C. Hoefler).

 

Why 1971

 On November 15, 1971 Intel created the world's first microprocessor: the Intel  4004

 

What does Silicon Valley mean geographically?

Silicon Valley is an area that "located on the San Francisco, California, peninsula, radiates outward from Stanford University. It is contained by the San Francisco Bay on the east, the Santa Cruz Mountains on the west, and the Coast Range to the southeast. At the turn of the century, when fruit orchards predominated, the area was known as the Valley of Heart's Delight" - as Carolyn E. Tajnai, former Director (1988 - 1997) of Stanford Computer Forum begins one of her   online-manuscripts  that described Silicon Valley history.

    According to the "Silicon Valley Joint Venture Index 2000 the Silicon Valley's cities were located around the South side of San Francisco Bay:


Silicon Valley Map 2000

 10 years later the above viewpoint of Silicon Valley Joint Venture was changed:  

The geographical boundaries of Silicon Valley vary. The region's core has been defined as Santa Clara County plus adjacent parts of San Mateo, Alameda and Santa Cruz Counties. In order to reflect the geographic expansion of the region's driving industries and employment, the 2011 Index includes all of San Mateo County. Silicon Valley is defined as the following cities: Santa Clara County (all) Campbell, Cupertino, Gilroy, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Monte Sereno, Morgan Hill, Mountain View, Palo Alto, San Jose, Santa Clara, Saratoga, Sunnyvale Alameda County Fremont, Newark, Union City San Mateo County (all) Atherton, Belmont, Brisbane, Broadmoor, Burlingame, Colma, Daly City, East Palo Alto, Foster City, Half Moon Bay, Hillsborough, Menlo Park, Millbrae, Pacifica, Portola Valley, Redwood City, San Bruno, San Carlos, San Mateo, South San Francisco, Woodside Santa Cruz County Scotts Valley Santa Clara San Jose Newark Fremont Union City.   The Silicon Valley Joint Venture  Index 2011

 Silicon Valley Map 4 - 2011

According to the Silicon Valley Joint Venture  Index 2011,  Silicon Valley Population: 3 millions; Jobs: 1.3 millions.

Census data for 2010 show median household income was ... $83,944 for the San Jose region, the epicenter of Silicon Valley (WSJ, Oct. 19, 2011 ), compared with the nationwide median of $50,046.  (San Jose Mercury News, Oct. 19, 2011)

Home Prices in the US Leading High Tech  Centers:

Silicon Valley Top 5 Companies by R&D spending

Source: 2011 Silicon Valley Information and Communications Technologies Study

Silicon Valley Real per Capita Income

Source: Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network, Inc.

Silicon Valley jobs: A recurring cycle of boom and bust  By Pete Carey
Over the past 15 years, Silicon Valley has created some of the world's most successful companies and best-paid workers, while shedding the jobs and industries it no longer needs. As 2011 begins, the drama of job creation and destruction continues ... the number of jobs in the valley today is about the same as in 1995, the year Yahoo was founded and three years before Google was born. Over the same period, the population has grown by 20 percent. And, amid the Great Recession, the number of people here who are unemployed -- hovering around 100,000 for a year and a half -- is the highest since the state began keeping comparable records in 1990.  (San Jose Mercury News, January 1, 2011)

 Silicon Valley Jobs cycle 1995-2009

 

 

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 08, 2009.
High-tech employment in Silicon Valley:

























Where from?

Foreign Language Source: Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network, Inc.

Three years later  the following  - more detailed comparison - data were published:

uploads/201309/1380069583GcRiex9e.jpg

SourceHow Indians defied gravity and achieved success in Silicon Valley by Neesha Bapat, October 15, 2012
 

The process of transforming San Francisco Bay Area to the India's Silicon Valley will continue for lot of different reasons including the following - significantly more English speaking IT engineers graduates in the India than in any other countries:

Four-Year Bachelor's Degrees in Engineering, Computer Science, and Information Technology Awarded from 1999 to 2004 in the United States vs. India,

  1999-20002000-20012001-20022002-20032003-20042004-2005
United States108,750114,241121,263134,406137,437133,854
India 82,107109,376129,000139,000170,000

Indians have founded more engineering and technology companies [in US] during that past decade than immigrants from Britain, China, Taiwan, and Japan combined.  

Source: Where the Engineers Are. By Vivek Wadhwa, Gary Gereffi, Ben Rissing, Ryan Ong. University of Texas at Dallas

 

See also:

- Indian Government aims to create 28 Million Jobs In Electronics By 2020. For comparison, there are a total of 5.75 million workers in the U.S. high-tech industry.   ( U.S. High-Tech Jobs Down Again in 2010  By Brian Heaton, October 5, 2011)  

- US ends India tech restrictions. Wharton Aerospace & Defense Report, February 04, 2011

    Total equity investments into venture-backed companies

PricewaterhouseCoopers data show that Silicon Valley took 40% of venture funding in 2012:

PricewaterhouseCoopers data show that Silicon Valley took 40% of venture funding in 2012

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers & National Venture Capital Association

According to the  PricewaterhouseCoopers & National Venture Capital Association 2010  Report,   Silicon Valley  attracted 40 percent of total US venture capital dollars and 30 percent of total US deals. New England was a distant second at 11 percent of total US funding and 12 percent of total deals:

Silicon regions Price-Waterhouse

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers & National Venture Capital Association

 

Intellectual property:

uploads/201309/1380069583MzGIyX3Q.jpg

      Source: Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network, Inc.

 

 

Highest   Patent Producing Metro areas
(Each city listed includes surrounding areas)

States Metro areas Annual averages (2007-2011)  patents producing
California Silicon Valley San Jose9,237
San Francisco7,003
Los Angeles5,456
San Diego3,165
New York New York6,907
WashingtonSeattle3,968
MassachusettsBoston3,965
IllinoisChicago3,886

Data sources:  Brookings Institution analysis as it was quoted by Mike Cassidy at  "Silicon Valley won't remain the country's patent leader without sensible immigration and education action" 02/01/2013

 

See also:

uploads/201309/1380069583GjUYCEdT.jpg

Source: US Patent and Trademark Office 

Silicon Valley Top Companies:

Regis McKenna: ' About every 10 years there is a new industry that arises here in Silicon Valley. Of the top 15 companies [in the region], 12 of those companies were formed in the past 15 years, they generate $600 billion of revenues, and employ about three-quarters of the people in Silicon Valley, and they were all entrepreneurial companies 15 years ago. So we continue to see this sort of churning and creating of new industries.'

Silicon Valley Top 25 Companies

Source: San Jose Mercury News, 2011 Silicon Valley 150 listings.

 

Silicon Valley Top 5 Companies by R&D

Silicon Valley Top 5 Companies by R&D spending

Source: 2011 Silicon Valley Information and Communications Technologies Study



States startups local grades founders
    Source: "Education and Tech Entrepreneurship" by Vivek Wadhwa, Richard Freeman, Ben Rissing.
    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2008


About 60 years ago, Stanford University had some financial problems. The authorities of university tried to resolve these problems by leasing part of the university land to high-tech companies for 99 years.

Carolyn Tajnai clarified this point of Stanford's history in more detail:

' In the 1950's, the idea of building an industrial park arose. The university had plenty of land over 8,000 acres....but money was needed to finance the University's rapid postwar growth. The original bequest of his farm by Leland Stanford prohibited the sale of this land, but there was nothing to prevent its being leased. It turned out that long-term leases were just as attractive to industry as out right ownership; thus, the Stanford Industrial Park was founded. The goal was to create a center of high technology close to a cooperative university. It was a stroke of genius , and Terman, calling it ``our secret weapon,'' quickly suggested that leases be limited to high technology companies that might be benspanananficial to Stanford. In 1951 Varian Associates signed a lease, and in 1953 the company moved into the first building in the park. Eastman Kodak, General Electric, Preformed Line Products, Admiral Corporation, Shockley Transistor Laboratory of Beckman Instruments, Lockheed, Hewlett-Packard, and others followed soon after.' Fred Terman, The father of Silicon Valley by Carolyn Tajnai, 1995

'Gradually, facilities were moved from leased quarters in San Carlos to a quiet corner of Stanford land, thus creating what is today the Company's headquarters site, and incidentally bringingi nto being the Stanford Industrial Park - the most successful complex of its kind in the world.'  Source: Varian Associates: An Early History

     

The First building of Silicon Valley

First Varian Associates building, Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, California, 1953. Source: 'Russell and Sigurd Varian - The Inventor and The Pilot', by Dorothy Varian. Palo Alto, 1983, p.258.

The picture is reproduced here with Varian Associates permission since 1995.

Is it a reasonable doubt or ... just invitation to the further discussion?
Among the different organizations that were instrumental in the process of creating Silicon Valley the significant role  was the Stanford Research Institute (SRI):

After World War II, a great industrial push was under way to reinvigorate the economy. Founded by a small group of business executives in conjunction with Stanford University, Stanford Research Institute (our founding name) was created in 1946 as a West Coast center of innovation to support economic development in the region. The world's first digital computer (ENIAC, weighing in at 30 tons) was introduced, and in what is now known as Silicon Valley a three-bedroom home sold for $10,000.  Source: SRI Timeline

.
Perhaps it was just one of the reasons why at least some of  SRI people appeared to be  very skeptical  about the above photo of Silicon Valley's building #1. Alice Resnick Senior Director, Corporate and Marketing Communications SRI International wrote to us concerning this subject

 31 Jan 2002 14:41:03 -0800:

For example,  SRI had a building in Menlo Park (one that we still occupy) in 1947, several years before what you call the 'The First building of Silicon Valley: First Varian Associates building, Stanford Industrial Park, Palo Alto, California, 1953' on your web page at http://netvalley.com/.


I
n 1995  William Hewlett decided to described in more details his own concept of Silicon Valley's birth.


参考文献编辑本段回目录

http://www.netvalley.com/silicon_valley_history.html
 

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