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1975 年,美国科普作家约翰·布鲁勒尔 (John Brunner) 写了一本名为《震荡波骑士》(Shock Wave Rider) 的书,该书第一次描写了在信息社会中,计算机作为正义和邪恶双方斗争的工具的故事,成为当年最佳畅销书之一。书中描述一个极端主义政府利用超级计算机网络控制民众,自由主义战士利用一种称为“tapeworm
”的程序,感染了整个网路,致使政府不得不关闭这个网络,最终打败了极端主义政府。

“蠕虫”最早出自一本1975出版的名为《Shockwave Rider》的科幻小说。最先由Xerox Palo Alto Research Center(PARC)于1980引入计算机领域,但当时引入它的目的是进行分布式计算而不是进行恶意的破坏。

John Kilian Houston Brunner (September 24, 1934 – August 26, 1995) was a prolific British author of science fiction novels and stories. His 1968 novel Stand on Zanzibar, about overpopulation, won the 1968 Hugo Award for best science fiction novel. It also won the BSFA award the same year. The Jagged Orbit won the BSFA award in 1970.

目录

[显示全部]

个人资料编辑本段回目录

John Kilian Houston Brunner

(图)http://221.238.21.211/index.php?doc-view-134385John Brunner


Born September 24, 1934(1934-09-24)
Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
Died August 26, 1995 (Age 61)
Occupation Novelist
Nationality British
Genres Science fiction
fantasy
Notable work(s) Stand on Zanzibar,
The Shockwave Rider,
The Sheep Look Up

官方网站:http://www.sfhub.ac.uk/Brunner.htm

个人简介编辑本段回目录

He was born at Preston Crowmarsh in Oxfordshire, and went to school at Cheltenham. He wrote his first novel, Galactic Storm, at 17, published under the name of Gill Hunt, but did not write full time until 1958. He served as an officer in the Royal Air Force from 1953 to 1955, and married Marjorie Rosamond Sauer on 1958-07-12. His health began to decline in the 1980s, and worsened with the death of his wife Marjorie in 1986. He remarried, to Li Yi Tan, on September 27, 1991. Brunner died of a stroke in Glasgow, Scotland on August 25, 1995, while attending the World Science Fiction Convention there. Brunner was popular in science fiction fandom in his native Britain.

Literary Works
At first writing conventional space opera, he later began to experiment with the novel form. His 1968 novel Stand on Zanzibar, about overpopulation, won the 1969 Hugo Award for best science fiction novel. It also won the BSFA award the same year. The Jagged Orbit won the BSFA award in 1970. His novel The Sheep Look Up (1972) was a prophetic warning of ecological disaster. Brunner is credited with coining the term "worm" in his 1975's proto-Cyberpunk novel The Shockwave Rider, in which he used it to describe software which reproduces itself across a computer network. His pen names include: K. H. Brunner, Gill Hunt, John Loxmith, Trevor Staines, and Keith Woodcott.

As well as his fiction, he wrote many unpaid articles in a variety of publications, particularly fanzines, but also 13 letters to the New Scientist and Physics Education (1971) volume 6 pages 389-391 "The educational relevance of science fiction" by John Brunner. Brunner was an active member of CND and wrote the words to The H-Bomb's Thunder which was sung on the Aldermaston Marches. He was a linguist and Guest of Honour at the first European Science Fiction Convention Eurocon-1 in Trieste in 1972.

著作目录编辑本段回目录

1950s

(图)The Shockwave RiderThe Shockwave Rider

Galactic Storm (1951) (as Gill Hunt)
The Man from the Big Dark (1958)
The 100th Millennium (1959) (revised in 1968 as Catch a Falling Star)
The Brink (1959)
Echo in the Skull (1959) (revised in 1974 as Give Warning to the World)
Threshold of Eternity (1959)
The World Swappers (1959)

1960s
The Atlantic Abomination (1960)
Imprint of Chaos (1960)
Sanctuary in the Sky (1960)
The Skynappers (1960)
Slavers of Space (1960) (revised in 1968 as Into the Slave Nebula)
I Speak for Earth (1961) (as Keith Woodcott)
Meeting at Infinity (1961)
Put Down This Earth (1962) (revised in 1963 as The Dreaming Earth)
The Ladder in the Sky (1962) (as Keith Woodcott)
No Future in It (1962) short story collection
Secret Agent of Terra (1962) (revised in 1969 as The Avengers of Carrig)
The Super Barbarians (1962)
Times Without Number (1962) (expanded in 1969) short story collection
Spoil of Yesterday (1962) (Novelette, Science Fiction Adventures: pp2–40, 5:25)
The Word Not Written (1962) (Novelette, Science Fiction Adventures: pp62–100, 5:26)
The Fullness of Time (1962) (Novelette, Science Fiction Adventures: pp2–42, 5:27)
The Astronauts Must Not Land (1963) (revised in 1973 as More Things in Heaven)
Castaways' World (1963) (revised in 1974 as Polymath)
The Dreaming Earth (1963) (revision of Put Down This Earth)
Listen! The Stars! (1963) (revised in 1972 as The Stardroppers)
The Psionic Menace (1963) (as Keith Woodcott)
The Rites of Ohe (1963)
The Space-Time Juggler (1963) (also published as The Wanton of Argus)

(图)The Shockwave RiderThe Shockwave Rider


To Conquer Chaos (1964)
The Crutch of Memory (1964)
Endless Shadow (1964)
The Whole Man (1964) (also published as Telepathist)
The Altar at Asconel (1965) (also published as The Altar on Asconel)
The Day of the Star Cities (1965) (revised in 1973 as Age of Miracles)
Enigma from Tantalus (1965)
The Long Result (1965)
The Martian Sphinx (1965) (as Keith Woodcott)
Now Then! (1965) (also published as Now Then) short story collection
The Repairmen of Cyclops (1965)
The Squares of the City (1965)
Wear the Butcher's Medal (1965)
Born Under Mars (1966)
Break the Door of Hell (1966)
The (Compleat) Traveler in Black (1966)
The Evil that Men Do (1966)
No Other Gods But Me (1966) short story collection
A Planet of Your Own (1966)
Born Under Mars (1967)
Out of My Mind (1967) short story collection
The Productions of Time (1967)
Quicksand (1967)
Bedlam Planet (1968)
Catch a Falling Star (1968) (revision of The 100th Millennium)
Father of Lies (1968)
Into the Slave Nebula (1968) (revision of Slavers of Space)
Not Before Time (1968) short story collection
Stand on Zanzibar (1968)
The Avengers of Carrig (1969) (revision of Secret Agent of Terra)
Black Is the Color (1969)
(图)The Shockwave RiderThe Shockwave Rider


Double, Double (1969)
The Evil That Men Do (1969)
The Jagged Orbit (1969)
A Plague on Both Your Causes (1969) (also published as Backlash)
Timescoop (1969)
Times Without Number (1969) (expanded from Times Without Number (1962)) short story collection

1970s
The Devil's Work (1970)
The Gaudy Shadows (1970)
The Wager Lost By Winning (1970)
Dread Empire (1971)
Good Men Do Nothing (1971)
Honky in the Woodpile (1971)
The Traveler in Black (1971) (revised and expanded in 1987)[citation needed]
Trip: A Sequence of Poems Through the U.S.A. (1971) short story collection
The Wrong End of Time (1971)
The Dramaturges of Yan (1972)
Entry to Elsewhen (1972) short story collection
From This Day Forward (1972) short story collection
The Sheep Look Up (1972)
The Stardroppers (1972) (revision of Listen! The Stars!)
Age of Miracles (1973) (revision of The Day of the Star Cities)
More Things in Heaven (1973) (revision of The Astronauts Must Not Land)
The Stone That Never Came Down (1973)
Time-Jump (1973) short story collection
Give Warning to the World (1974) (revision of Echo in the Skull)
A Hastily Thrown Together Bit of Zork (1974) short story collection
Polymath (1974) (revision of Castaways' World)
Total Eclipse (1974)
Web of Everywhere (1974) (also published as The Webs of Everywhere)
What Friends Are For (1974)
The Shockwave Rider (1975)
The Book of John Brunner (1976) short story collection
Interstellar Empire (1976)
The Things That Are Gods (1979)

(图)The Shockwave RiderThe Shockwave Rider

1980s
Foreign-Constellations (1980) short story collection
The Infinitive of Go (1980)
Players at the Game of People (1980)
Manshape (1982) (revision of Endless Shadow)
While There's Hope (1982)
The Crucible of Time (1983)
The Great Steamboat Race (1983)
A New Settlement of Old Scores (1983) short story collection
The Tides of Time (1984)
The Compleat Traveller in Black (1986) short story collection
The Shift Key (1987)
The Best of John Brunner (1988) short story collection
Children of the Thunder (1988)
The Days of March (1988)
Victims of the Nova (1989)

[edit] 1990s
A Case of Painter's Ear (1991) (posthumous)[citation needed]
A Maze of Stars (1991)
Muddle Earth (1993)
Tomorrow May Be Even Worse (1997) (posthumous) short story collection

病毒与蠕虫编辑本段回目录

(图)John BrunnerJohn Brunner

“病毒”一词最早用来表达此意是在弗雷德·科恩(Fred Cohen)1984年的论文《电脑病毒实验》。而病毒一词广为人知是得力于科幻小说。一部是1970年代中期大卫·杰洛德(David Gerrold)的《When H.A.R.L.I.E. was One》,描述了一个叫“病毒”的程序和与之对战的叫“抗体”的程序;另一部是约翰·布鲁勒尔(John Brunner)1975年的小说《震荡波骑士(ShakewaveRider)》,描述了一个叫做“磁带蠕虫”、在网络上删除数据的程序。

蠕虫
Robert Jr. Morris 应该没有料到他在 1988 年 11 月所写的一支网络程序,竟然成为第一支在因特网上广为扩散的蠕虫(worm),而这支被称为 Morris Worm 的蠕虫,便成为其它蠕虫的仿效对象。

「蠕虫」这个名称的由来,是取自 John Brunner 在 1975 年的科幻小说故事─The Shockwave Rider,故事描述利用计算机网络控制人民的集权政府与自由战士之间的对抗,自由战士使用一种称为 tapeworm 程序破坏集权政府的计算机网络;而最后当然是 tapeworm 程序成功的瘫痪了政府的网络系统,集权的政府也被自由战士瓦解。

蠕虫的行为和病毒非常类似,但是病毒会感染并依附着「宿主」程序,而蠕虫不需要宿主,是个可以独立执行的程序;蠕虫就像一条藉由网络的爬行而会传染其它计算机的虫。

章鱼编辑本段回目录

章鱼(Octopus)是一种非常复杂的计算机蠕虫,它包含一组程序,分别存在于网络中的多台计算机上。
例如,头部和尾部的程序分别被安装在单独的计算机上,它们互相通信,来共同完成某种功能。章鱼蠕虫目前还不是一种被广泛知道的计算机蠕虫,然而今后有可能变得更为普遍。(有趣的是,章鱼蠕虫的思想来自于John Brunner的科幻小说《Shockwave Rider》(激波骑士)。这部小说的主人公Nickie在被通缉的过程中使用不同的身份。Nickie盗用电话线路,并且使用一种磁带蠕虫(tape-worm)—与章鱼蠕虫非常相似—来删除他之前的身份。)

蠕虫历史:1982年,Shock和Hupp根据The Shockwave Rider一书中的一种概念提出了一种“蠕虫”(Worm)程序的思想。 蠕虫程序可用作为Ethernet(以太网)网络设备的一种诊断工具,它能快速有效地检测网络。

Heroes of Cyberspace: John Brunner编辑本段回目录

by Charles A. Gimon

(图)The Shockwave RiderJohn Brunner


for INFO NATION

"For all the claims one hears about the liberating impact of the data-net, the truth is that it's wished on most of us a brand-new reason for paranoia." --John Brunner, "The Shockwave Rider", 1975.
John Brunner contributed to the world's science fiction heritage for over forty years. Publishing his first novel at age 17 in 1951, he continued to put out traditional "hard" science fiction through the fifties and sixties. Among several dozen titles he produced, four stand out: "The Sheep Look Up", "The Jagged Orbit", "Stand on Zanzibar", and "The Shockwave Rider", all published between 1968 and 1975.
"Stand on Zanzibar", which won a Hugo award in 1968, moved Brunner out of deep-space adventures and into the near-future dystopias which were popular in the late sixties and early seventies (think of the films "Soylent Green" or "A Clockwork Orange"), and which prepared the way for the cyberpunk movement.

The world of "Stand on Zanzibar" is an overpopulated and generally stressed-out world of the early 21st century. This is a world beset by all variety of problems, some related to diminishing resources, some related to the breakneck progress of technology. But it's a world not far removed from our own: nation-states still hold power, some people still have regular jobs, people even still use paper mail and voice phones. The main motif of "Stand on Zanzibar" is the stress-symptom: what happens to people when there are starting to be too many of them? Brunner makes shrewd guesses not so much about science or catastrophe, but about how politics, society and even pop culture would be affected. He coins a future slang word "mucker" to describe a person who snaps under the stress and flies into a homicidal rage.

In the world of "Stand on Zanzibar" governments and corporations hold power at the macro level, while society frays on the street. Technology is zooming ahead for those at the top: the government is able to bug an apartment and scan conversations for key words--something the NSA is said to be able to do today--and is able to hide a message inside a voice phone call by steganography. Most government resources around the world are being put into a genetics race. Brunner figures that if population control becomes a critical necessity, eugenics will become a part of the mix, for reasons of mass-psychology if nothing else. Both psychological "eptification" and physical genetic engineering are matters of national security and political urgency.

(图)John BrunnerJohn Brunner

Brunner casts a satirical eye at the media as well. A world where the information technology exists to tailor broadcasts for each individual doesn't necessarily lead to a freer, richer intellectual life. News and entertainment broadcasts feature two characters called Mr & Mrs Everywhere: digital anchorpersons whose image is altered to fit the viewer. Africans see an African, Asians see an Asian, Russians see a Russian...but it's the same old corporate line. "Whatever my country and whatever my name/a gadget on the set makes me think the same."

The main information tech item in "Stand on Zanzibar" is the supercomputer called Shalmaneser, a massive processor in a small, liquid-helium-cooled receptacle. Brunner comes so close here to predicting today's computer world, but his vision here is still stuck in the fifties: offices all over the United States rent time on Shalmaneser, as though it were an early IBM mainframe, and much of Shalmaneser's output is on reams of paper.

Brunner did have a grasp of the problems of applying computers to the real world: "Isolated in the air-conditioned GT tower, one might juggle for a thousand years with data from computers and pattern them into a million beautiful logical arrays. But you had to get out on the ground and see if the data were accurate before you could put over the programming switches on Shalmaneser from 'hypothetical' to 'real'." (Brunner had a remarkable grasp of American small-talk, both in the present and in his extrapolated futures, but he was too British to make the American mistake of saying "data was" instead of "data were".)

Shalmaneser is a character in the story: it/he is famous enough to have a kind of pop-culture celebrity, and one of the plot's stronger threads involves the question of whether Shalmaneser is self-aware. Brunner speculates on the possibilities of real Artificial Intelligence--but this vision of computers in the world was not his most accurate.

The book by which John Brunner is best remembered is "The Shockwave Rider", published in 1975. It's often called the first cyberpunk novel, and deservedly so. An Internet-like continental data network is a vital element in the book, and important plot events take place on it. The setting is another near-future world where the stresses of technological change are taking their toll.. The mind/body question, identity and information control are all central themes--themes that would later be taken up by William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, Rudy Rucker, and other writers of the eighties and nineties.

Nickie Haflinger, the protagonist, could be called a proto-hacker: an escapee from a U.S. government sponsored human optimization project, manages to move from identity to identity by accessing government databases through telephone keypads. In "Shockwave Rider", the phones are veephones or videophones--you could almost replace them with videoconferencing PCs without harming the story. While telephone "phreaking" had been known in Britain since the early sixties, Brunner shows stunning insight into the potential for one clever person to manipulate computer networks for their own purposes. "He deduced from first principles that there must be a way of allowing authorized persons to drop an old identity and assume a new one, no questions asked. The nation was tightly webbed in a net of interlocking data-channels...confidential information had been rendered accessible to total strangers capable of adding two plus two. (The machines that make it more difficult to cheat on income tax can also ensure that blood of the right group is in the ambulance which picks you up from a car crash. Well?)" The netted world of "Shockwave Rider" is very much our own world of government and business databases--Brunner wasn't predicting, as much as he was warning us about the present.

Brunner's future in "Shockwave Rider" includes an info-futures betting pool called Delphi. Even as people struggle to keep up with the tiring pace of technological change, they can win money by betting on the next breakthrough. (There is info-futures betting for entertainment only on the Internet today at http://if.arc.ab.ca/IF.shtml). Brunner sees this not as a free-market instrument, but as a tool to be manipulated by government bureaucrats who fiddle with the odds: "What the public currently yearned for could be deduced by watching the betting, and steps could be taken to ensure that what was feasible was done, and what was not was carefully deeveed. It was a task that taxed the skills of top CIMA experts to ensure that when the government artificially cut Delphi odds to distract attention from something undesirable no other element in the mix was dragged down with it." What appears on the outside to be freedom is actually government control by information feedback.

The same government think-tanks and secret labs are doing fairly gruesome work in genetic engineering--another theme that would appear in later cyberpunk novels, especially by Gibson or Bruce Sterling.

Another remarkably prescient element in "Shockwave Rider" is a mysterious service called Hearing Aid: an anonymous, untraceable service that people can call up and confess their sins and problems to. Hearing Aid doesn't offer help--it just listens, which is therapeutic enough. The service is so important that the government grudgingly tolerates its existence, in spite of its rejection of data-collecting. The structure and challenges of running such a service are familiar to anyone who has dealt with anonymous remailers or similar privacy services on today's Internet.

Hearing Aid is protected by its own 'tapeworm' on the data net: the idea that Brunner is most remembered for today. Brunner describes various bits of agent software that run on his data-net by themselves, calling them tapeworms or worms, replicating phages, and viruses. The terms have entered today's computer jargon; Brunner's viruses are the computer viruses we know today. Not only does Brunner see this possibility, he sees people and institutions using 'worms' in a form of information warfare.

To Brunner, control is control of information; either digital data or genetic code. Governments may use information to keep a lock on society, but individuals may take find power for themselves as well by controlling and manipulating information. The powers that be have access to the data-net, but "in theory everyone does, given a dollar to drop into a pay phone". Brunner identified himself with the political left (including anti-war actions in Britain during the sixties) but when he's read today, his outlook seems so much more concerned with the rights and dignity of the individual, rather than trying to social-engineer whole societies. This spirit is very much the "Internet ethos" we see today.

John Brunner got critical respect as a writer of science fiction, but he never gained the overwhelming fame or fortune that the top few writers enjoy, and that he probably deserved as well. A man who remained active in the science fiction world till the very end, he passed away at the 53rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, Scotland. It was fitting and poignant that his fans would hear the news of his death on the Internet:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

From: sch@panix.com (Stuart C. Hellinger)
Newsgroups: rec.arts.sf.written
Subject: The Death of John Brunner
Date: 26 Aug 1995 11:16:59 -0400
Organization: PANIX Public Access Internet and UNIX, NYC

[ Article crossposted from rec.arts.sf.fandom ] [ Author was
Stuart C. Hellinger ] [ Posted on 25 Aug 1995 13:56:16 -0400 ]

I received a phone call from Sharon Sbarsky over at Intersection
in Scotland.

John Brunner suffered a stroke last night while attending the
convention  and passed away earlier today.

This is not generally known by the convention attendees as yet.

-SCH!     (Stuart C. Hellinger     sch@panix.com)
                  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   
From: "Kurt C. Siegel" 
Newsgroups: rec.arts.sf.written
Subject: John Brunner
Date: 25 Aug 1995 18:40:40 GMT
Organization: GlobalOne NewsGateway

British Author John Brunner, in Glasgow Scotland for the 53rd
World  Science Fiction Convention (Intersection) suffered a
massive stroke and  passed away Friday, 25 August, 1995.

More details as they are known.

--  Kurt C.Siegel Deputy Vice Chair, North America Intersection
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Brunner saw science fiction as the "literature of the open mind". He foresaw the wild progress we're making in info technology today, but he saw progress with a critical eye. He never forgot that human dignity and wisdom is the heart of our culture, and while technology may serve us in ways we never imagined, it can never replace that.

Matthew Tepper has a tribute to John Brunner in his web pages at:

http://www.deltanet.com/~ducky/brunner.htm

More tributes to John Brunner from the Worldcon newsletter are at:

http://sundry.hsc.usc.edu/hazel/Smofs/intervom.mem

A list of titles by John Brunner can be found at:

http://www.mammothmusic.com/~wolf/literature/brunner_john.html

You can find the rules for "fencing", a board game Brunner invented and described in "The Shockwave Rider", at:

http://www-theory.cs.st-and.ac.uk/~sal/Fencing.html

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标签: 约翰·布鲁勒尔 John Brunner 《震荡波骑士》 约翰·布拉诺 约翰·布伦纳

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